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American Cornucopia 

Treasures from 
the Winterthur Library 





American Cornucopia 

Distributed by The University Press of Virginia, Charlottesville 

American Cornucopia 

Treasures of the Winterthur Library 


Katharine Martinez 

Winterthur, Delaware 
The Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur Museum 


This project was supported by funds 
from the Friends of Winterthur. 

© 1990 by The Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur Museum, Inc. 


First pubhshed 1990. 
Library of Congress Cataloguing-in-Pub ligation Data 

Winterthur Library. 

American cornucopia : treasures of the Winterthur Library / edited by 
Katharine Martinez. 

p. cm. 

Includes bibliographical references. 

ISBN 0-912724-20-X 

I. Winterthur Library, z. Decorative arts— Library resources — Delaware— 
Wilmington. 3. Rare books— Library resources— Delaware— Wilmington. 
4. United States — Civilization— Library resources— Delaware— Wilmington. 
I. Martinez, Katharine, 1950- . II. Title. 
Z733.W785W55 1990 
026.973— dcio 90-4115 


Cover: Printed challis from Swatch Book 65 x 697, France, ca. i8?os-50s. 

Henry Francis du Pont 

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2011 with funding from 

Lyrasis IVIembers and Sloan Foundation 


Color Plates 9 

Foreword 25 

Architecture zy 

Ornament 3 1 

Interiors 37 

Furniture 4 1 

Ceramics and Glass 47 

Metals 5 1 

Textiles and Needlework 57 

Gardens 6 1 

Art and Artists 65 

Childhood 71 

Courtesy and Etiquette 75 

Pleasure and Ceremony 79 

Cookbooks and Manuals of Domestic Economy 83 

The Shakers 87 

Advertising 9 1 

Technology 9 5 

Travel 99 

Holdings Cited 105 

Notes on Contributors 117 

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Plate i. Nicholas King, A ?lan, and Perspective-View of a House and Other Buildings, Belonging to Mr. Edwd. Langley . 
1798. Watercolor; H. iS'/s", w. ii^W. H Although the building illustrated here no longer stands, at least one other federal 
dwelling attributed to Nicholas King is extant in Georgetown, D.C. 

Plate z. Feathers, flower, and leaves. Watercolor; H. 9V2", w. 15". From Christian M. Nestell, 
drawing book. New York, 1 8 1 i/i 2, p. 76. 

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Plate 6. "Tea and Breakfast Services / English China Ware." From Illustrated Pattern Book of English China and 
Earthenware . . . (N.p., [ca. 1880]), p. 28. Page: h. 14V2", w. 10%". 1 This array of decorated English porcelain 
teacups and saucers appears in a glass and ceramic wholesalers' catalogue that offers many types of wares. At least 
three different wholesalers' names appear in the catalogue, including the unidentified "A.M." of Stoke-on-Trent, 
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Plate 8. Leaf from a handloom weaver's draft design book, probably France, nineteenth century. Page: h. 
i8'/>", w. 1 1 Vi". 11 In a happy blend of technology and art, this manuscript combines instructions for weaving 
floral textiles with full-scale color swatches of fabrics as they were to appear when woven. 

Plate 9. Pavilion bathhouse, upper terrace, Formal Garden, 191 5. Autochrome; h. 5", w. 7". H Perfeaed by 
Lumiere Brothers of Lyon, France, in 1 907, the autochrome process is generally recognized to be the first form 
of color photography. 




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Plate i i. "Lake Flies." From Mary Orvis Marbury, Favorite Flies and Their Histories (Boston and New York: 
Houghton, Mifflin, 1896), pi. H. Page: H. gyie", w. 6V4". H The color plates in this volume, by a member of a 
well-known family of sporting-goods manufacturers, are dazzling reminders of the golden age of dry fly-fishing. 

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Plate 13. Case with personal utensils. From [Catalogue of Watercolor Drawings Depicting French Wares], 
vol. 4 (France, [ca. 18 10]), p. [67]. Page: h. 16", w. 11". II This striking multivolume catalogue of watercolor 
drawings shows personal goods, chiefly life size, available to residents of France during the first decade of the 
nineteenth century'. Probably used by an itinerant peddler, this catalogue is a remarkable document not only 
because of the items it includes but also because of its extraordinary artwork. Even though the produas 
depicted are French, similar goods were shipped abroad and used in the United States. 

Plate 14. "De Schoenmaker." From Geheel Nieuiv G root en Vermakelizk Prentenboek voor Kmderen (Zalt-Bommel, 
Netherlands: Johannes Neman, 1826), facing p. [14]. Page: H. g'A", w. S'A". ^ Although few have such superb illustra- 
tions, works such as Geheel Nieuw Groat en Vermakelizk were intended to acquaint children with the trades. Note the 
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Plate i6. Karl Bodmer, "Mato-Tope / A Mandan Chief." From Maximilian Alexander Phiiipp, Prinz von Wied- 
Neuwied, Reise in das Innere Nord-Ainerica . . . (Coblenz: J. Hoelscher, 1839-41), pi. [3]. Page: H. 14", w. lyVi". 
H From 1831 to 1834, Karl Bodmer traveled the United States from Massachusetts to Montana with Maximilian, a 
German nobleman. The prince hoped to compile a work that reflected his interest in "the rude, primitive character of 
the natural face of North America, and its aboriginal population, the traces of which are now scarcely discernible in 
most parts of the United States" (quoted in Friends of Winterthur, Annual Report [Winterthur, 1964), p. 27). This 
provocative portrait of Mato-Tope in full feathered headdress is one of Bodmer's eight\'-one engraved landscapes, 
towns, and portraits. 


Housing nearly half a million manuscripts, printed items, and visual im- 
ages, Winterthur Library, established in 195 1 with material collected by 
Henry Francis du Pont, is a research center for the interdisciplinary study 
of American art, material culture, and history. The strength of the library's 
collections resides in three areas: materials that describe the design, pro- 
duction, marketing, and use of American domestic objeas and the foreign 
models and antecedents on which many of them are based; materials that 
record and illustrate American art and architecture; and materials that 
document everyday life in America from its beginnings into the twentieth 
century. Given the variety of items in the library's collections— rare 
printed books, manuscripts, pamphlets, advertising ephemera, and visual 
materials, to name just a iew— American Cornucopia is an appropriate 
title for a book about Winterthur Library. 

From its earhest years, Winterthur's staff devoted much attention 
and energy to building a library capable of supporting advanced research. 
Henry Francis du Font's vision and devotion fired the minds of those 
charged with developing the library, and each left his or her own mark. 
Helen R. Belknap presided over the Memorial Library housed in the muse- 
um. The Memorial Library, which contained du Font's personal collection 
of books and manuscripts, provided the nucleus of the library's collections 
today. Having demonstrated its importance to staff, visitors, and students 
in the then newly established Winterthur Frogram in Early American Cul- 
ture, the library was moved to the Louise du Font Crowninshield Research 
Building in 1969 so that the collections would have room to grow. In the 
same period, two dedicated volunteers, Mr. and Mrs. John J. Evans, Jr., 
developed the library's extraordinary collection of photographs document- 
ing American decorative arts. This collection now numbers more than 
150,000 images and is recognized as an essential resource for research 
projects in the American decorative arts. 

The library has also been influenced by an archaeological approach 
to collecting introduced by Frank H. Sommer IIL From 1963 when he 
was appointed head of the library until his retirement in 1988, Sommer's 
passion for acquiring as many types of materials on a subject as possible 
resulted in collections of encyclopedic breadth. His interest was piqued 


both by works whose importance was widely recognized and by the seem- 
ingly insubstantial. Sommer collected not only leather-bound rare books 
but also valentines, not only architectural drawings but also seed packets. 
Because Sommer found merit in all sorts of verbal and visual records and 
did not classify these materials hierarchically by their perceived impor- 
tance or potential usefulness, Winterthur Library gained a reputation as a 
pioneering institution in focusing attention on the lives of anonymous 
people, particularly on domestic life, an unfashionable subject among 
historians of the 1950s and early 1960s. As a result of Sommer's efforts, 
social and economic historians are now more likely to research and base 
their conclusions on materials such as paper dolls, scrapbooks, or the rec- 
ords of a general store, a blacksmith, or a jeweler. 

For the library staff, the satisfaction of helping researchers is en- 
hanced by the pleasure of discovering and rediscovering treasures through- 
out the collections. Writing the present volume was an additional pleasure, 
for it allowed us to explore individual areas of interest to a degree difficult 
to achieve in the normal course of duty. It also provided an opportunity 
to exhibit items that are only occasionally seen because their sensitivity to 
light precludes displaying them even briefly at public exhibitions. Finally, 
writing this book has been a pleasure because it allowed us to call atten- 
tion to some of our recent acquisitions. Winterthur's staff, students, and 
visitors are already well aware that the library houses great riches, in part 
due to the continuing support of the Friends of Winterthur and the 
Waldron Phoenix Belknap Trust. Yet as the collections continue to grow, 
the arrival of a rare woodworking manual or a volume of fabric swatches 
may go unnoticed. I hope that American Cornucopia will offer some sur- 
prises to even our most seasoned users, as well as an overview of the col- 
lections and the opportunities the library offers for research. To serve these 
needs, American Cornucopia was produced. 

Katharine Martinez 


Neville Thompson 


Much of the fascination of architectural history lies in what the clash and 
intermingling of theory and practice reveal about a period. The great liter- 
ature of Western architectural theory begins with classical theorists such 
as first century B.C. architect Vitruvius. For several centuries, his writings 
stood unchallenged as the bedrock of Western architectural theory and 
still remain essential for an understanding of buildings of the past. Vitru- 
vius and his fellow classical theorists never stood alone, however; Gothic 
and Oriental modes have often had apologists. In addition, maverick and 
highly personal theories about building have always found expression, a 
notable American example being the polemics of Orson Squire Fowler, 
originator of the octagon house. 

Vitruvius and Fowler represent architectural writing at its most 
theoretical; however, architectural literature concerns much more than 
theory. As anyone who attempts to document the history of a building 
soon learns, a vast range of supporting material can shed light on its his- 
tory, including books on building methods, old postcards and photo- 
graphs, price books, insurance and tax records, wills and deeds, local his- 
tories, newspaper articles, drawings, and other manuscript material. Such 
sources are essential for explaining the actual appearance and condition 
of a structure as it changes over time, for few man-made artifacts are al- 
tered so often and so visibly as buildings. Vernacular and modest struc- 
tures are particularly difficult to understand and interpret without such 
supporting materials since frequently little or no documentation exists by 
the builders or original owners. 

Winterthur Library is particularly rich in the theoretical and prescrip- 
tive writings that have profoundly shaped Western architectural traditions. 
The library holds key early works such as Bartoh's 1550 translation of 
Alberti, the first illustrated edition of this important early writer; Bar- 
baro's 1556 translation of Vitruvius into Italian; and the i563[?] Rome 
edition of the masterwork of Giacomo Barozzi, better known as Giacomo 
da Vignola. Because Winterthur's copy of this last work contains five addi- 
tional plates, it is as important as an artifact as it is as a source of informa- 
tion. Reflecting the quickened pace of architectural publication in the 
seventeenth and later centuries, the library's collection of theoretical works 


Fig. I. "Part of an Octangular Work of 
the Corinthian Order." From Andrea 
dal Pozzo, Rules and Examples of Per- 
spective Proper for Painters and Ar- 
chitects . . . , trans. J. Sturt (London: J. 
Senex and R. Gosling; W. Innys; J. Os- 
born and T. Longman, [170?]), fig. 58. 
Page: H. 16", w. 10". 

While the illustrations in this English transla- 
tion of Pozzo's work (originally published in 
Rome in 1693) are handsome in themselves, 
they had a more serious purpose than decora- 
tion. According to Pozzo's translator, Sturt, a 
thorough command of perspeaive was essen- 
tial to the proper understanding of architec- 
ture and the sister arts. Pozzo's dramatic style 
of rendering perfealy matches its subject. 
Perhaps the most impressively endorsed ar- 
chitectural book ever published. Rules and 
Examples contains a testimonial signed "Chr. 
Wren, J. Vanbrugh, & N. Hawksmoor." 

FIG U R A Quinquagefimaoaava. 

jEdiScium OrJinis C O R r N T 1 1 1 1 

1 VCVSQUE dejh-iffimuipilafmicaffr 
mjlras adifidi Corintiii- £t boc loco mo- 
liittalomdtxuramlottiiiOprrh. /mtfftm 
:\ru ttlifoim^ Ijakbiiji^iird fextj^f/tmi. 

The Fifty-eighth FIGURE 

Pan of an O^anguhr If'orl: of thf 

ITHEaTO the ncareft Lcft-lonI 
Quarter of this Corintbian Dcfigo he 
been dcfcribd In this Plate yeu hate 
the Right-hand Half of the wilt leWork; 
and in the Sixtieth FiLu.c the entiTC 

Perfpedivc comjileat 

from later eras is larger, with editions of Vincenzo Scamozzi, Ferdinando 
Galli da Bibiena, Roland Freart de Chambray, Jan Vredeman de Vries, 
perspectivist Andrea dal Pozzo (fig. i), and others. But the library's most 
impressive holdings are architectural works from Great Britain. Spanning 
publications from the first English-language editions of Palladio (171 5) 
and Alberti (1726), through builders' guides of the eighteenth century, to 
the influential "villa books" of James Malton, Peter Frederick Robinson, 
and their early nineteenth-century contemporaries, the library's collection 
of architectural works from Great Britain has a remarkable breadth and 
depth. Certain of the library's titles are rare or unique. Robert and James 
Adam's Works in Architecture, for example, has hand-colored plates, and 
Stephen Riou's Grecian Order of Architecture and elder John Wood's 
Description of the Exchange of Bristol are annotated by their authors. 
What is especially valuable about the library's collection of theoretical 
works on British architecture, though, is the assemblage of so many titles 
in one place, especially since so many appeared in editions of only a few 
hundred. The American counterparts of these works are here as well, from 
the very first architectural work published in this country — Abraham 
Swan's British Architect (1775)— through the manifestos of Gustave 
Stickley, a prominent leader of the arts and crafts movement. 

Much of the meat of architectural publication, however, is practical 
rather than theoretical. Extremely popular in nineteenth-century America, 
house pattern books, such as Samuel Sloan's Model Architect, provided 


Fig. 2. "The Pomona." From Aladdin 
Company, Aladdin Homes: "Built in a 
Day" (Bay City, Mich., 1919), pp. 19- 
20. Page: H. S'/is", w. 9y4". 

Aladdin Company's attractive catalogues are 
interesting for the manner in which houses are 
presented, each in a capsule short story. Re- 
spectabilit)' was evidently a major concern for 
a company marketing a building type still re- 
garded with suspicion by conser\'ative buyers. 

builders with specifications and directions for constructing houses and 
advertised mail-order homes. As indicated by Aladdin Company's 1919 
catalogue of homes, an entire fabricated dweUing could be bought by post 
and ereaed on the purchaser's site (fig. 2). As early as the eighteenth cen- 
tury, however, associations of house carpenters issued builders' guides 
and handbooks for particularly difficult construction jobs such as fire- 
places and staircases. Nicholas Ganger's Fires Improv'd (1715), based on 
his earlier Mecanique du feu (171 3), is an early example. 

As demonstrated by Thomas Tredgold's Practical Essay on the 
Strength of Cast Iron and Other Materials (1824), new technologies and 
materials in the nineteenth century led to greater specialization in the liter- 
ature of building. Trade catalogues for manufactured building elements 
also appeared at this time, the iron store fronts featured in the catalogue 
for Mesker and Brother providing a handsome example (fig. 3). Printed 
works in fields ancillar\' to architecture— landscape gardening, city plan- 
ning, and early archaeological surveys— are represented in the library as 

Architectural drawings and related manuscript sources are among 
the most personal expressions of an architect's intentions. The library's 
collection of drawings for domestic architecture includes a group of ren- 
derings (as well as letters and even a rudimentary' treatise) by important 


Fig. 3. Cover, Mesker and Brother, Ar- 
chitectural Catalogue [of] Galvanized 
Iron Work (St. Louis, Mo., 1888). 
H. iz'/s", w. gVs". 

Mesker and Brother's Architectural Catalogue 
is as handsomely produced as its cast-iron 
building elements. Both catalogue and build- 
ings are equally expressive of an age that de- 
lighted in ornament. 

nineteenth-century architect Alexander Jackson Davis; a detailed set of 
plans and elevations for an 1840s town house for the Skidmore family of 
Brooklyn by Thomas Thomas; late eighteenth-century watercolors by 
Benjamin Henry Latrobe's first American pupil, Frederick Graff (and 
Graff's own annotated copy of Latrobe's report on the Philadelphia 
waterworks); and Nicholas King's charming plan and perspective of a 
dwelling for the city of Washington, dated 1798 (pi. i). An important 
group of materials recently acquired by the library is the working papers, 
drawings, and research notes of distinguished restoration architect 
G. Edwin Brumbaugh. Brumbaugh's papers bear on many aspects of 
architectural research, especially on eighteenth-century Pennsylvania 

The library's collection of architectural works is, of course, invaluable 
to curators and other staff members who care for old structures, but it is 
also vitally important to scholars devoted to studying the history and ap- 
plication of design. Consequently, Winterthur Library houses a broad 
range of materials to provide scholars with the background necessary for 
a thorough appreciation of architectural theory and practice. 


Katharine Martinez 


Fig. 4. Ornament designs from Alexis 
Loir, [Suite of Ornament Etchmgs] 
(Paris: N. Langlois, [ca. 1700]), pi. 3 de- 
signs 6-ro. Page: H. iz'Vis", w. 7V2". 

Designer Loir provides a visual encyclopedia 
of motifs based on natural forms that could 
be adapted to carved furniture, wall cover- 
ings, and applied decoration. 

Who can resist the urge to decorate a plain surface? Until quite recently, 
skilled craftsmen, architects, and designers were well versed in an exten- 
sive vocabulary of decorative motifs, including fleurons, scrolls, gro- 
tesques, festoons, arabesques, and volutes. Alexis Loir's suite of ornament 
etchings illustrates a few of the many traditional design motifs used by 
artisans of earlier ages (fig. 4). Because ornament designers often recorded 
their work on paper, scholars today can trace the derivation and sub- 
sequent evolution of the ornament found on decorative objects by study- 
ing the publication history of printed ornament. 

The impetus for much subsequent European ornamental decoration 
began in Italy during the Renaissance. The rediscovery of ancient Roman 
architecture together with the invention of printing stimulated the de- 
velopment of an Italian vocabulary for both structural and surface decora- 
tion that spread throughout Europe. Roman architectural elements such 
as columns and friezes became the chief elements in the classical vocabu- 
lary for structural decoration, whether in buildings or in furniture. At the 
same time, the wall decorations discovered during the excavation of Em- 
peror Nero's Domus Aiirea in 1488 gave rise to a playfully animated style 
of surface decoration called grotesque in reference to the underground 
grottos in which the wall decorations were discovered. From these sources 
European ornament evolved. 

Ornament prints issued in portfolios or suites served as disposable 
paper patterns that could be easily handled, cut up, and copied before 
being thrown away. Indeed, the ephemerality of these images accounts for 
their modern rarity. The titles given to suites of ornament prints, such as 
A Compleat Book of Ornaments . . . Being Very Useful for Painters, 
Carvers, Watchmakers, Gravers, usually emphasize the usefulness of the 
plates for a variety of projects. As the above title and Paul Androuet 
Ducerceau's designs show, a single design could be applied to many sur- 
faces (fig. 5). 

By the eighteenth century, ornament prints were widely popular not 
only among professional craftsmen and architects but also among con- 
noisseurs, collectors, and leisured upper-class ladies seeking designs to 
copy in needlework. Typically, eighteenth-century ornament etchings were 


Fig. 5. Ornament design from Paul An- 
drouet Ducerceau, Ornement servant 
anx brodeur ouvrier en soie et orfevre et 
autre (Paris, [ca. 1660-17 10]), pl- i- 
Page: H. 8", w. 11". 

Ducerceau (ca. 1630-1713), a designer and 
goldsmidi, was known for his scrolling foliage 
patterns. In this example, he presents a repeat- 
ing pattern. If each end of the paper were 
brought together to form a circle, the pattern 
edges would fit together to create an unbro- 
ken, or repeating, scroll. 

Oiiiemcnf jeniont aux broBcur oiitiricr en Joic norfairc a antra. var,^.^.(Oam\t 

available singly or in suites that contained six to twelve plates held to- 
gether with simple stitches at the left edge, occasionally with a title sheet 
to attract buyers. The sheet size of the paper for such a suite was usually 
not large, although exceptions, such as Giovanni Ottaviani's Loggie di 
Rafaele, were made for artists who were universally admired. Jean Berain 
and Juste Aurele Meissonier also had their work issued in folio size, as 
befitted designers holding the title "dessinateur de la chambre et du 
cabinet du roi," the highest honor bestowed on a French designer. 

A suite of ornament prints might be devoted to a single motif, such 
as the cartouche in Friedrich Unteutsch's Neues Zieratenbuch den 
schreinern Tischlern (fig. 6), or combine a number of decorative motifs or 
patterns for specific objects, such as vases or chimneypieces. Often design- 
ers would illustrate a single object or motif with two different halves 
joined in the middle, in order to cram as many designs as possible onto 
the available sheets of paper. Although designs in a suite were usually not 
arranged in any particular hierarchical or sequential order, a lovely excep- 
tion to this rule is Matthias Lock's Principles of Ornament; or. The 
Youth's Guide to Drawing of Foliage. For one shilling the buyer obtained 
a lesson in drawing leaves that become increasingly complex as one turns 
the pages until the design culminates in a rococo floriate scroll. Suites and 
single sheets of ornament designs were often bound together by publishers 
and booksellers or pasted into blank volumes by their owners. Winterthur 


Library has several bound compilations and scrapbooks, including a vol- 
ume belonging to English silver-plate manufacturer Matthew Boulton in 
its original French vellum binding. This compilation contains twelve suites 
of ornament designs, including ones by Francois Boucher, Jean-Antoine 
Watteau, and Claude Gillot. 

Many factors contributed to the wide dissemination of ornament 
designs in Europe. Artists and designers such as Daniel Marot, Jean Le 
Pautre, and Francois de Cuvillies traveled extensively between European 
courts and cities, leaving a paper trail of their work. Italian designer 
Gaetano Brunetti, for example, was in England in 1736 when he issued 
Sixty Different Sorts of Ornaments, one of the earliest rococo pattern 
books published in England, before he traveled on to Paris. Through such 
printed works, design historians can trace the spread of a particular style 
throughout Europe. 

Reprints and even plagiarized versions of printed ornament also 
spread designs quickly, indicating a healthy market for potentially useful 
images. The fanciful rococo prints produced in Paris by Jean Mondon 

Fig. 6. Cartouche design from Friedrich 
Unteutsch, Neues Zieratenbuch den 
schreinern Tischlern . . . (Nuremberg: 
Paulus Fursten, 1635), pi. 5. Page: H. 

6Vi\ w. 478". 

The designs of Friedrich Unteutsch { 1 600— 
1670), a German cabinetmaker, are auricular, 
a style modeled on the undulating shapes of 
eariobes or cartilage. Such forms most com- 
monly appear in car\'ed European furniture 
of the seventeenth century. 


Fig. 7. "Die verliebte Zusamenstimung." 
From Jean Mondon, Neit Inventierte 
Vorstellungen von Stein iind Mtischel 
Werck mit Chinesischen Figuren verziert 
Dritter-Theil (Augsburg: Johannes 
Georg Merz, [ca. 1750]), pi. M. Page: 
H. 8%", w. 6'/2". 

Mondon's fanciful tableau combines rwo im- 
portant elements of rococo decoration: a play- 
ful, elegant couple and a rocaille, an abstract, 
asymmetrical shell. 

J-iCs tetulrcs .Accords . 

1 . S .JKaws.-txe.J^t^.'i 

during the 1730s were reprinted in Augsburg later in the century by a 
pubhsher who was careful to include Mondon's name in each plate's im- 
print as the inventor of the designs (fig. 7). Other publishers were less 
concerned about properly crediting their sources. London map and print 
seller Robert Sayer published A Collection of Figures and Conversations 
in 1 77 1 based on the work of such French artists as Boucher and Claude- 
Joseph Vernet. Sayer's vignettes served as sources for transfer-printed im- 
ages on Wedgwood creamware as well as for Worcester porcelain. Clearly, 
ceramics manufaaurers did not care who originated a specific design as 
long as they had a variety of attractive subjects to copy. London publisher 
John Weale cared even less for accuracy. During the 1830s he rushed sev- 
eral volumes of ornament prints into circulation, claiming that all the de- 
signs in them were by Thomas Chippendale, when, in fact, they were by 
Thomas Johnson and Matthias Lock. 

Printed design sources were brought to America by the earliest 
settlers. The 1687 inventory of Pennsbury Manor, the home of William 
Penn, lists " i paper boock of dutch draughts" in the "Joyners Roume" 


(quoted in Benno M. Forman, "The Chest of Drawers in America, 1635— 
1730: The Origins of the Joined Chest of Drawers," Winterthur Portfolio 
20, no. I [Spring 1985]: z6). Samuel Sympson's Neu> Book of Cyphers, 
pubhshed in London in 1726, and John GuiUim's Display of Heraldry of 
1724 were also known to have served as models for American silver- 
smiths. Occasionally, historians are lucky to find a design sketchbook 
signed by a known craftsman that demonstrates how American artisans 
developed their own ornament vocabulary. The library owns a student's 
book of watercolor designs for painted ornament executed from 1 8 1 1 to 
1 8 1 2 by Christian Nestell, who later became an ornamental painter and 
gilder in Providence, Rhode Island (pi. 2). His designs are similar to those 
found in earlier English pattern books, such as The Cabinet-Maker and 
Upholsterer's Drawing-Book by Thomas Sheraton. 

Instances of a direct link between an object's decoration and a printed 
pattern are very rare. Consequently, identifying a specific source for an 
object's ornament is difficult if not impossible in many instances. Although 
a pine wall bracket in Winterthur Museum is obviously based on a design 
for a girandole printed in Johnson's One Hundred and Fifty New De- 
signs, the origin of other structural or applied decoration can seldom be 
pinpointed. The two most frequently cited sources for japanned decora- 
tion are John Stalker and George Parker's Treatise on Japanning and Var- 
nishing and George Edwards and Matthias Darly's New Book of Chinese 
Designs. Yet japanned decoration may also be based on such sources as 
Francis Barlow's Booke Containing Such Beasts as Are Most Usefull for 
such as Practice Drawing, Gravaeing, Armes Painting, Chaseing; the work 
of another craftsman; or the maker's own sketches. That artisans created 
their own designs for japanned decoration is evident from a sketchbook 
in Winterthur Library dated approximately 1817-20. Attributed to an 
Englishman named H. Wrightson, the sketchbook includes drawings of 
flowers and animals, plus vignettes with oriental figures. 

The importance of ornament prints in the design process is a continu- 
ally fascinating subject for decorative arts scholars to ponder as they at- 
tempt to tease into place the links connecting artistic inspiration and 
finished produa. The apparent lack of a direct connection between printed 
image and finished object challenges scholars to continue thumbing 
through volumes and portfolios of images in the attempt to discover miss- 
ing links. Even when such direct links are not discoverable, ornament 
prints are a useful barometer of the market for a particular decorative 
style. Why would a publisher sink money into a publishing project that 
would not be lucrative? At the same time, ornament prints reflect the ever- 
changing tastes of craftsmen who avidly sought new ornament designs in 
order to respond to the public's demand for new material goods. In fact, 


the manner in which designers such as Loir, Ducerceau, Sayer, and Barlow 
crowded muhiple motifs onto a single sheet encouraged constant change. 
The newest ornamental designs became passe very quickly. Fortunately 
for scholars, ornament prints capture and freeze onto paper a visual 
vocabulary that was then and is now in a perpetual state of flux. 


Neville Thompson 


Documenting interiors and their furnishings is at the heart of Winterthur's 
mission. Because we often have incomplete records of the appearance of 
furnished rooms before the advent of photography, reconstructing them 
can call for a combination of many different sources and considerable 
detective work. Inventories, auction records, prints, illustrations, genre 
paintings, diaries, travel narratives, trade catalogues, and prescriptive 
works by designers and decorators all offer clues and are sought by the 

While each of these sources provides important evidence for the look 
of a historic room, it is important to distinguish between those that pre- 
scribe the way a room should look and those that record interiors in 
which people actually lived. Prescriptive works often depict fashions that 
few could afford to dupHcate exaaly but from which many craftsmen and 
householders drew ideas. As experience demonstrates, few actual room 
settings are "all of a piece" through economic necessin,' or personal taste, 
and personal taste, however shaped, in the end diaates that no two rooms 
are ever exactly alike. For this reason, records of actual rooms — compiled 
through inventories, photographs, or sketches — are very useful. The inven- 
tory of the furnishings of George Washington's residence in New York 
tells us very precisely what the interiors contained and how much their 
furnishings were worth. Such inventories, combined with surviving exam- 
ples of listed furnishings, are vital for recreating the contents of historic 
interiors. However, as one travels farther back in time, fewer and fewer 
such interiors have been preserved or recorded, especially those belonging 
to members of the middle and working classes. Consequently, reconstruct- 
ing them poses a special challenge. Fortunately for students of American 
interiors, John Lewis Krimmel's watercolors of early nineteenth-century 
Pennsylvania interiors are very revealing (pi. 3). 

Prints are another major source of information for the appearance of 
interiors. Among the prints most influential in their day were the suites of 
designs by Huguenot Daniel Marot (ca. 1663— 175Z), who brought the 
grand style of the French court to the Low Countries, where it then passed 
to England. Marot designed furniture, decoration, gardens, vases, up- 
holstery, clocks, and tombs (fig. 8). So influential was Marot's work, in 


Fig. 8. Interior in the William and Mary 
style. From Daniel Marot, Werketi 
(Amsterdam, 1707), pi. 53. Page: h. 
i4'/8", w. 9'/4". 

Marot is a major figure in the history of in- 
teriors. His houses, himishings, and gardens 
and the record of them preserved through his 
publications were enormously influential in 
forming what we now call the William and 
Mary style. This plate embodies some of the 
key elements of that style, most notably the 
assemblage of blue-and-white chma above the 

fact, that an early owner of the copy of Werken now at Winterthur com- 
piled an index to it and inscribed the place and date it was acquired: "This 
book . . . was bought at Mr. Robt. Freebairn's auction . . . Feb. 1709." 
By the end of the eighteenth century, neoclassical style prevailed in 
Europe and this country alike. Because it was adaptable to many places 
and situations, neoclassical style was spread by a variety of publications, 
including fashionable magazines such as Rudolph Ackermann's Reposi- 
tory of Arts. While the influence of Ackermann's journal has long been 
acknowledged, other magazines with exquisite illustrations such as 
Magazzino di Mobilia from Italy and Magazin fur Freunde des giiten 
Geschmacks from Germany helped to spread interior decoration and fur- 
nishings in the Pompeian, Egyptian, and even the Gothic styles, which 
were also fashionable (pi. 4). Works such as George Smith's Collection of 
Designs for Household furniture were responsible for popularizing styles 
among the affluent. On the other hand, two English auction catalogues in 
the library, both dated 1803, reveal through their room-by-room lists of 
household contents how interiors were actually furnished. Although the 
contents of a property auctioned by a man named Terry belonged to a 
"farmer and corn-dealer," and those of one auctioned by Henshaw be- 


longed to Sir George Chetwynd, baronet, the neat mahogany chairs and 
handsome Pembroke tables found in the drawing rooms of both houses 
bear a remarkable similarity. Authentic settings are also discoverable in 
the library's set of 1830s watercolors by an amateur artist named Louisa 
Clinton. Her sketches of chairs and tables set in what are probably Scot- 
tish country homes demonstrate the importance of artifacts placed in rela- 
tion to specific places, times, and circumstances. 

During the nineteenth century, a great variety of period interior styles 
proliferated, spread in part by the increasing number of design publica- 
tions. A taste for rococo revival appears in the 1840 House Decorator 
and Painter's Guide, a sort of trade catalogue issued by H. W. and A. Ar- 
rowsmith, "decorators to Her Majesty." Interiors illustrated in this work 
were only for the few who could afford the cost and sought the novelty of 
change. Like that of the Arrowsmiths' guide, the primary purpose of Sug- 
gestions for Household Decoration by London firm T. Knight and Sons 
was to advertise its decorating services for a prosperous clientele. Never- 
theless, Suggestions is a marvelous compendium of period interiors, in 
which the new "aesthetic" taste meets and mingles with elements from 
other eras. The contents of a New York town house of the 1 860s auc- 
tioned by J. L. Vandewater fills out the picture of design in the nineteenth 
century by suggesting how the influx of styles affected consumers. The 
Vandewater auction catalogue indicates, for example, that the owner of 
the town house had purchased his piano from Bacon and Raven and his 
"new and original Mexican oil painting" from the Art Union, the latter at 
a cost of $zoo. The nineteenth century also saw significant numbers of 
women writers enter the field of decoration and its literature. A modest 
amateur contribution, Eliza T. Van Schaack's Woman's Hand, narrated 
the story of a cobbler's wife who confounded her country neighbors by 
transforming her humble cottage with her hands and a little paint. Maria 
Richards Dewing, wife of an American painter, also wrote an advice book 
for the housewife-decorator. Beauty in the Household, which makes con- 
scious claims for the civilizing mission of good household design. 

Photography, of course, transformed the documentation of interiors, 
bringing to it an immediacy missing from previous sources, although in 
such "house books" as that of the beautifully photographed Smitley resi- 
dence, the house is sitting for its portrait just as surely as its proud owner 
would have. Similar photographs exist for a now demolished cottage on 
the Winterthur grounds (fig. 9). A 191 5 compendium of then-current 
taste, The Room Beautiful manages to capture a more international range 
of interiors at their best, as do the photographs of Biedler-Viken docu- 
menting the John Hay Witney house in Locust Valley, New York, in the 
1940s. The impeccably conventional good taste of the latter contrasts 


Fig. 9. Interior of Winterthur Cottage. 
Winterthur Cottage, photograph album, 
date unknown. Album: H. 7V\t,'\ w. 
9 1/4". 

Photography, often of very high quality, has 
preserved the look of a surprising number of 
mid to late nmeteenth-century interiors, 
among them this now-vanished house on the 
du Pont estate. 

with F. S. Lincoln's photographs of the Oyster Bay home of Bertha King 
Benkard, collector and close friend of H. F. du Font's. Reflecting the 
assumptions and values of the heroic age of American collecting, the fur- 
nishings in the library's photographs of the Benkard house compare most 
appropriately with those depicted in Winterthur Archives' handsome 
drawings of room settings for du Pont. Executed by Leslie Potts, these 
watercolors are valuable both as documentation and as artifacts in their 
own right. 

While viewpoints and interpretations may change with the tides of 
scholarship, inventories, auction catalogues, prints, genre paintings, design 
treatises, diaries, and deeds remain the essential raw materials from which 
all scholarship concerning interiors draws. The search for and acquisition 
of such sources is Winterthur Library's unchanging and very high priority. 


Bert R. Denker 


Fig. to. Armchair, southeastern En- 
gland, ca. 1690. From Robert Wemyss 
Symonds Collection, photographs and 
documents, ca. 19x0—58, English furni- 
ture, ca. 1450-1850. Photograph: H. 
1 1 Vs", w. 878". 

Robert Wemyss Symonds, 3 remarkable Eng- 
lish scholar and writer, built over many years 
an extensive research collcaion of photo- 
graphs of privately and publicly owned furni- 
ture. This photograph of an elaborately 
carved armchair is one of several thousand 
documenting a wide stylistic and geographic 
range of English furniture forms. Symonds's 
correspondence and the annotations of his 
daughter Virginia who took voluminous notes 
on woodworking craftsmen from early news- 
papers and journals supplement the photo- 
graphs, some of which were published in 
Symonds's articles and books. Since Winter- 
thur Library acquired the Symonds Collec- 
tion, American scholars have found studying 
English antecedents of American furniture 
much easier. 

Since furniture can be fully understood only within the historical context 
provided by design manuals, artists' sketches, account books, receipts, 
and invoices, the symbiotic relationship between Winterthur Museum and 
Winterthur Library is, perhaps, most apparent in the study of furniture 
and related woodworking trades. However, while the museum's furniture 
collection is limited to American examples before i860, the library's col- 
lection of materials concerning the history of furniture is international in 
scope and documents the full range of seventeenth-, eighteenth-, and 
nineteenth-century styles, plus the arts and crafts and colonial revival 
movements of the twentieth century. 

Of course, the earliest American furniture was directly based on Eng- 
lish and European pieces. Consequently, the Robert Wemyss Symonds 
Collection of photographs of early English furniture provides essential 
documentation for scholars who seek to locate a specific source for a piece 
of early American furniture or to understand the influence of English tra- 
ditions on American craftsmanship (fig. 10). In addition to finding inspira- 
tion in actual European examples, American furniture craftsmen found 
ideas for their work in English and Continental pattern books, although 
they inevitably reshaped the designs illustrated in such publications in 
light of their individual training, the availability of materials and 
technologies, and the expectations of their customers. Andre-Charles 
Boulle's Nouveaux deisseins de meubles et ouvrages de bronze et de mar- 
queterie, John Crunden's Joyner and Cabinet-Maker's Darling, Thomas 
Milton's Chimney-piece-Maker's Daily Assistant, Filippo Passarini's 
Nouve inventioni d'ornametiti d'archittetura, Thomas Chippendale's 
Gentleman and Cabinet-Maker's Director, and William Chambers's De- 
signs of Chinese Buildittgs, Furniture, Dresses, Machines, and Utensils are 
just a few of the library's useful pattern books. 

As important as European examples and pattern books in shaping 
the work of American furniture makers were foreign periodicals that pub- 
lished illustrations of and commentaries on the latest and most fashionable 
household furnishings. Because such journals are ephemeral, researchers 
at the library are fortunate to have issues of Pierre de La Mesangere's Col- 
lection des meubles et objets de gout, Rudolph Ackermann's Repository 


Fig. II. A Chinese Desk and Bookcase. 
Drawing; H. 1 1 Vs", w. 9%". From Wil- 
liam Gomm and Sons, "Sundry Draw- 
ings of Cabinet Ware 8cc.," London, 

The ink-and-wash drawings of William 
Gomm (ca. 1698— 1794) depict various furni- 
ture forms and furniture in rooms. Furniture 
and interior decoration imaginatively adapted 
from Chinese models were fashionable in 
England, on the Continent, and m the United 
States in the second half of the eighteenth cen- 

of Arts, Desire Guilmard's Garde-meuble, ancien et modeme, and the 
Magazzino di mobilia o sieno modelli di mobili di ogni genere. 

More directly related to American furniture history than either Euro- 
pean pattern books or periodicals are the library's price books. Published 
in London, New York, Philadelphia, and Cincinnati, these works provided 
craftsmen with practical information on contemporary designs, local 
prices, and workmen's wages. The Journeymen Cabinet and Chairmakers' 
Netv-York Book of Prices, for example, indicates that a standard six-foot 
sofa with six legs could be customized. Consumers could order a longer 
sofa, add one or more legs or rails, or request removable arms or backs — 
each of these variations commanding a specific price. Of special interest 
to nineteenth-century furniture scholars is the Book of Prices of the United 
Society of Journeymen Cabinet Makers, published in Cincinnati in 1836, 
which illustrates many forms of the newly popular empire and neoclassical 
styles and provides patterns for craftsmen to follow. 

Another essential aspect of the history of American furniture involves 
the original design drawings and notes of cabinetmakers themselves. Al- 
though such notes and drawings seldom survive, Winterthur Library has 
acquired a representative selection in its collection. Typical of the work of 
sophisticated urban craftsmen are the marvelous ink-and-watercolor 
drawings of William Gomm, an English cabinetmaker and upholsterer 
working in London at Newcastle House, Clerkenwell Close. William 
Gomm and Sons' "Sundry Drawings," dating between 1755 and 1763, 
show a variety of rococo furniture and interiors that demonstrate familiar- 
ity with the published designs of Thomas Chippendale, Thomas Johnson, 
and Lock and Copland. Although some of the furniture pieces illustrated 
in these drawings are plain and utilitarian, others have elaborate Gothic 
and Chinese designs (fig. 11). The Gomms' sophisticated furniture con- 
trasts markedly with the rustic furniture depicted in the watercolor designs 
of T. Rutter of Lovegrove and Kennington Green. Beginning in 1 8 1 9, 
Rutter designed and built summerhouses, garden seats, grotto baskets, 
flower stands, and Venetian blinds. The popularity of rustic furniture is 
evident from the number of published works on the subject. Among the 
more significant in the library are Ideas for Rustic Furniture published in 
London in the 1780s and Johann Grohmann's Recueil d'idees nouvelles 
pour la decoration des jardins et des pares published in Paris in 1796. 
Persistence of the style may be demonstrated by Rustic Old Hickory 
Chairs, Rockers, Settees, Tables, a 190Z trade catalogue by Old Hickory 
Chair Company of Martinsville, Indiana, which manufactured rustic fur- 
niture from 1899 to 1968. 

Design drawings by American cabinetmakers provide insight into 
American furniture by revealing how American craftsmen adapted stan- 


Fig. 1 2. William Buttre, trade card. New 
York, ca. 1813. 

One of the most visually descriptive images in 
the library is this engraved trade card for the 
Buttre's Fancy* Chair Manufactory. Virtually 
the entire chairmaking process is shown, start- 
ing at the lower right with a craftsman turn- 
ing parts on a lathe, continuing with chair 
construction and rush-seat weaving at the 
lower left, and concluding with ornamental 
painting in the upper left. Buttre's address in 
New York indicates that the card was made 
circa 1 8 1 3, before he moved upstate to Al- 

dard forms to their own needs and when various styles came into and 
went out of fashion. Illustrating precisely measured and described 
eighteenth-century furniture, five ink drawings in the library show Daniel 
Arnd and Peter Ranck, Pennsylvania German craftsmen of Lancaster and 
Jonestown, translating popular Philadelphia designs into ones better suited 
to the small towns of eastern Pennsylvania. And pencil sketches of a lyre- 
back chair and a Grecian cross-front chair by Duncan Phyfe, the owner of 
a fashionable furniture shop in New York during the early nineteenth 
century, provide early American documentation of the "antique" style so 
popular in England. Phyfe's drawings apparently were sent circa 1 8 1 6 to 
Charles N. Bancker, a Philadelphia customer, to illustrate Phyfe's new 
forms and to provide prices for them. A more detailed perspective of Phyfe 
in American furniture history can be gained through other resources in 
the library: Phyfe's own copy of The New-York Revised Prices for Manu- 
facturing Cabinet and Chair Work; the auction catalogue for the sale of 
the entire stock of Duncan Phyfe and Son in 1847; and the 1854 inven- 
tory of the Duncan Phyfe estate. 

Account books and other business records are also invaluable tools 
for research into American furniture, in large part because they document 
the materials that craftsmen purchased, the price paid for them and labor, 
and sometimes even the steps involved in producing a piece of furniture. 
They also reveal the price at which craftsmen sold their products and 
often information about the life-styles and values of craftsmen and their 
customers. The 1763—77 receipt book of Benjamin Randolph, an impor- 
tant eighteenth-century Philadelphia cabinetmaker, records that he pur- 
chased and had shipped oak, walnut, and mahogany lumber. The estate 
inventory of Michael Allison, on the other hand, lists finished pieces of 
furniture items and their market values — "Rosewood dressing bureau 
$30," "antique Looking glass S3," "Mahogany dining extension table 
$25" — thus supplying both an inventory of an actual home and a price 
index to furniture in New York in the 1 850s. Another source of informa- 
tion about craftsmen and their practices is the trade card, the most graphic 
of which advertised William Buttre's "Fancy Chair Manufactory" in New 
York between 1805 and 18 13 (fig. 12). 

The account books of the Dominy family of East Hampton, New 
York, provide especially complete information about the activities of rural 
furniture makers since they cover three generations of cabinet- and 
clockmakers from 1762 until 1847. A sustained business record remark- 
able for its detail, the account books show that Nathaniel Dominy IV 
(1737-1812), Nathaniel Dominy V (1770-1852), and Felix Dominy 
(1800— 1868) constructed a wide range of furniture forms for their clien- 
tele. They also made and repaired watches and clocks and performed cop- 


per-, black-, and gunsmithing as well. Complementing the library's collec- 
tion are the museum's original Dominy workshops, tools, and furniture. 

Probably no item in Winterthur Library, however, surpasses in histor- 
ical interest George Washington's handwritten list of furnishings for the 
official residences of the president in New York and Philadelphia between 
1789 and 1796. This manuscript records purchases from many of 
America's most prominent craftsmen such as Thomas Burling who made 
a bedstead, a writing desk, chairs, and "a table for Mrs. Washington"; 
Alexander McComb who sold an "Elegant chandelier" to the president; 
George Barteau (or Bartow) who upholstered two chairs and two stools; 
James Reynolds who provided picture frames; and James Dunlap who 
sold Washington looking glasses. In addition to these purchases, Washing- 
ton carefully notes china, eating utensils, lighting devices, carpets, Franklin 
stoves, and other household items. Besides documenting the furnishings of 
the presidential residences, this list provides clues to Washington's person- 
ality and tastes. 

The library collections for twentieth-century furniture are rich and 
varied. As important for its era as the Dominy Collection is for the 
nineteenth century, the Stickley Collection contains images and documents 
pertaining to Gustave Stickley, a leading figure in the arts and crafts move- 
ment. A furniture designer and manufacturer as well as the publisher of 
the Craftsman, a monthly periodical promoting the ideals of twentieth- 
century handicraft, Stickley was an influential entrepreneur. Winterthur 
Library houses 675 glass-plate photographic negatives illustrating various 

Fig. 13. Sideboard, Craftsman Work- 
shops, ca. 1905. From Gustave Stickley 
glass-plate negatives (and modern con- 
tact prints), furniture in Craftsman 
Workshops, Inc., Eastwood, N.Y., ca. 
1905-16. Negative: H. 8", w. 10". 

Printed from a glass-plate negative made for 
Stickley's furniture catalogues and books, this 
photograph of a sideboard is representative 
of the library's significant resources on the 
American arts and crafts movement. Impor- 
tant because they record most of the forms 
manufactured by Stickley until his bankruptcy 
in 1 9 1 6, these negatives are also of interest to 
scholars because they depia various acces- 
sories made for and sold by the company. 


Fig. 14. Dining room, Pickering house, 
Salem, Mass., ca. 19 10. From Mary 
Harrod Northend, glass-plate negatives, 
early New England decorative arts and 
architecture, ca. 1905—20. Negative: H. 
8", w. 10". 

Mar>' Northend of Salem began photograph- 
ing historic buildings, their interiors, and early 
American decorative arts early in this century. 
Many of her photographs (and those of other 
photographers she hired) illustrate her own 
books on the colonial revival, including Colo- 
nial Homes and Their Furnishings ( 1 9 1 2) and 
Historic Homes of New England (1914). 
Here Northend photographed a room in the 
Pickering house, which was built in 1660 for 
John Pickering on land which had formed 
part of the Governor's Field originally owned 
by John Endicott. When Northend wrote and 
published information on this house, it had 
been continuously owned in the Pickering 
family. Its eighteenth-centur)' chairs and por- 
traits, nineteenth-centur)' empire table, and 
twentieth-centurv' "drugget" rug from India 
are typical of the family accumulations that 
appear in her photographs. 

furniture forms made by Stickley's United Crafts enterprise at Eastwood, 
New York (fig. 13). It also contains business papers, account books, sales 
ledgers, merchandise lists, and other items from United Crafts, the earlier 
partnership of Stickiey and Simonds Company, and the rival firm of 
L. and J. G. Stickiey, a furniture company started by two of Gustave's 

Yet another of the library's materials documenting the history of 
American furniture is the group of photographs taken for Mary Harrod 
Northend's many books and articles on New England houses and their 
furnishings. What is especially interesting about Northend's illustrations 
is that they provide accurate glimpses of the past in the process of change. 
Northend had photographs taken, for example, of the Pickering house 
which had been in continuous use in the same family from the mid seven- 
teenth century. Consequently, many of the photographs for her works 
depict rooms housing both early American furniture and more recent ac- 
quisitions (fig. 14). A glimpse of the past in the process of change can also 
be obtained in Henry H. Crapo's carefully painted watercolors, circa 
1880, of the rooms of the William J. Rotch house of New Bedford, which 
was designed by Alexander Jackson Davis in 1848. Although furniture 
made by Davis is illustrated in many of Crapo's watercolors, the rooms 
painted by Crapo also contain more recently purchased furnishings (pi. 5). 


In sum, many types of documents and artifacts, each forging its own 
special link in the chain of information, are necessary for a full under- 
standing of the development of American furniture. For this reason, Win- 
terthur Librar)' is dedicated to collecting a vast array of materials related 
to American furniture and furniture historv. 


Bert R. Denker 

Ceramics and Glass 

^/„,/df/i-z^:i ^Tj^i^y/i,;,/„t 


s* >s 


,A /'«jf 

^ ^S^ i t/i ^.</5 *< ^ ■■'/■■■ 

Fig. 15. "3 pan Eel handd. Sqr. foot 
Bowfoot / Herculaneum Scent Jar / 
Warwick Vase." From Spode factory 
shape and pattern book, Stoke-on-Trent, 
Staffordshire, Eng., ca. 1 81 5-21, 
p. 136. Page: H. y'/s", w. iV^". 

Spode produced neoclassical forms such as 
the "Herculaneum Scent Jar" and the "War- 
wick Vase" to capitalize on the public's in- 
terest in the archaeology of Italy and the mar- 
ket for decorative accessories complementary 
to architectural mteriors in the "antique" 
style. Tablewares mcluding cups and saucers, 
tea- and coffeepots, and plates comprise the 
majorit\' of design shapes in the pattern book, 
and precise measurements of each form are 
provided for production. 

In a better world, cultural historians would be able to find all the 
craftsmen's designs, correspondence, account books, invoices, bills of 
lading, trade catalogues, and other artifacts needed to identify and under- 
stand American decorative arts. In reality, however, such resources are 
scarce, and scholars must often be detectives, piecing together histor)' from 
scattered fragments of evidence. 

Potters and glassmakers are among the least understood artisans be- 
cause their craft is particularly hard to document. In contrast to silver- 
smiths, cabinetmakers, clockmakers, and weavers, potters and glass- 
makers rarely marked their wares, which were produced in large quan- 
tities and sold at low prices to wholesale merchants or retail stores. Study- 
ing earthenware potters is especially difficult because many worked at 
their trade only part of the year to supplement farm income and do not 
appear as craftsmen on tax lists and census records. As a result, the surviv- 
ing documentation for these elusive craftsmen and manufaaories is ex- 
tremely valuable. 

Connoisseurship of ceramics is supported by design books and trade 
catalogues that describe or illustrate a particular manufacturer's products. 
Winterthur Library has a remarkable group of these reference works. One 
manuscript collected by H. F. du Pont records ceramics produced by the 
Spode Factory in Stoke-on-Trent, Staffordshire, England. English ceramics 
dealer, researcher, and writer Geoffrey A. Godden identified the manu- 
script in 1966 as a shape-pattern book for Spode's creamware and porce- 
lain (fig. 15). Subsequently, numerous items at Winterthur and other 
American and British museums have been identified as Spode products. 
Another valuable manuscript pattern book in the library is that of Joseph 
Ball of Staffordshire, England, whose precise ink-and-watercolor drawings 
illustrate "Gaudy Dutch," "Gaudy Welsh," and luster-decorated wares 
exported to the United States in large quantities. Of slightly later date is 
Illustrated Pattern Book, an English china and glass wholesaler's catalogue 
that features the wares of many Staffordshire potteries, foreign porcelain 
makers, and European glass factories (pi. 6). Special because of its 
documentation of the international trade in ceramics in the mid to late 
nineteenth century is the two-volume Catalogue Containing Watercolor 


Drawings of Japanese Porcelain, which illustrates fine porcelain and 
earthenware for export to the West (pi. 7). 

American potters and manufactories are also well represented in the 
library's collections. The Ubrary holds pictorial billheads or price lists for 
Aldrich and McCormac (successors to C. M. Silsby and Company) in 
Troy, New Hampshire; N. Clark and Company in Lyons, Mount Morris, 
and Rochester, New York; and Fulper Brothers in Flemington, New Jer- 
sey, among others. In addition, the library contains trade catalogues 
whose accurate and appealing illustrations help to document wares of late 
nineteenth- and early twentieth-century potteries such as Rookwood Pot- 
tery in Cincinnati; Galloway Terra-Cotta Company in Philadelphia; and 
J. G. and J. F. Low in Chelsea, Massachusetts. The popular craft of china 
painting is documented by trade catalogues for companies providing 
porcelain firing kilns and enamel decorating colors, as well as original 
china-painting designs by such well known artists as Charles Volkmar 
(fig. 16). 

The most fascinating resources for scholars of American pottery, 
however, are the few surviving daybooks of craftsmen. Their detailed 
descriptions of ware types, production dates, employee wages, and mar- 
keting strategies provide insights to the potter's craft and the relation of 
craftsmen to the community. The library's earliest daybook, which covers 

Fig. 16. Charles Volkmar, Perch, 1894. 
Ink-and-watercolor on paper; h. i$Vs", 
w. 12". 

Charles Volkmar (1841-1914) was an Amer- 
ican artist equally adept in both the fine and 
the decorative arts. Trained in France as a 
painter and an etcher, Volkmar returned to 
the United States, working as an artist-potter 
in New Jersey and New York. When pub- 
lished, this ink drawing of perch in a lake was 
accompanied by instructions for adapting it 
to porcelain decoration. Many professional 
and amateur artists practiced china painting 
after the 1876 Centennial Exposition. 


parts of 1 76 1 and 1762, was recorded by Jeremiah Page, a brickmaker 
and seller in Danvers, Massachusetts. It documents sales of "hard bricks," 
"pale bricks," "well bricks," and tiles to customers throughout Essex 
County in exchange for goods or cash. The library also has daybooks by 
Samuel Swank, an earthenware potter located near Johnstown, Pennsyl- 
vania, and Christopher Fenton of United States Pottery at Bennington, 
Vermont. Covering the period between 1850 and 1857, Swank's book 
records sales to individuals and crockery dealers for a wide range of forms 
including "creamcrocks," "spittingboles," "smokepipes," "pie-dishes," 
and lamps. Fenton's daybook, on the other hand, documents the accounts 
payable for United States Potter)' beginning April 14, 1847, hsting pur- 
chases of wood, sand, plaster, "stone clay," and "fire clay," among other 
raw materials. In addition, it provides detailed notes on employees and 
their wages. The late nineteenth-centun,' account ledger of John H. Sonner 
of Strasburg, Shenandoah County, Virginia, is intriguing for its depiction 
of a business failing over time due to changing technolog)'. Sonner's ledger 
traces the diminishing trade in utilitarian stoneware as output and prices 
fell in competition with glass storage jars and bottles. To combat the 
trend, Sonner shared the time of master porter Theophilus Grim with 
other area potteries; employed his father, S. H. Sonner, as a handyman; 
and bartered his pottery for a wide variety of goods, including nails, a 
rocking chair, white lead, hams, tobacco, shingles, wood, sugar, and even 
his printing bills. 

Because glass manufacture involves much more complex technology 
than ceramics, there were relatively few American glassmakers. Neverthe- 
less, Winterthur Library contains important resources on glassware used 
and made in America. Gardiners Island Glass Catalogue may well be the 
Hbrary's most significant historical document on glass (fig. 17). Named 
for Gardiners Island, New York, where it was found, the two-volume 
catalogue has exquisitely clear ink-and-watercolor drawings of Bohemian 
glass that may represent the work of several glass manufactories. Scholars 
have found the first of its two volumes particularly useful in documenting 
early glass imported to the United States, much of which had hitherto 
been mistakenly attributed to American makers. Now this glass has been 
correctly identified with Bohemian manufacturers, largely because Johan- 
nes Schiefner, whose name appears on the "Preiss Courrent" accompany- 
ing each volume, is known to have been a glass merchant from Parchen, 
Bohemia. Evidently, Schiefner operated an export and commission agency 
in Russia, America, and Spain, among other countries. 

American glass manufacture is revealed through many documents 
available in the library such as the account ledger kept by George Dum- 
mer of Jersey City Glass Works; the 1774 indenture between Henry Wil- 


Fig. 17. Bohemian cut-glass goblets. 
From [Gardiners Island Glass Cata- 
logue], vol. I (Gardiners Island, N.Y., 
[ca. 1805]), nos. 87-94. Wash and ink 
on paper; H. i4'/8", w. 18". 

The clear ink-and-wash drawings of the glass 
catalogue illustrate and list prices for a wide 
variety of Bohemian tablewares and chan- 
deliers exported to the United States in the 
late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. 
John Lyon Gardiner (1770-18 16), the 
seventh proprietor of the island, may have 
been directly involved in the import trade. 

liam Stiegel, a glass manufacturer, and Jeremias Miller, both of Manheim, 
Pennsylvania; and numerous receipts and illustrated billheads, including 
those for Orange County Flint Glass Works in Port Jervis; Boston Glass 
manufactory in Boston; and Bakewell, Pears, and Company in Pittsburgh. 
Of special note among the library's trade catalogues for American glass is 
one for Belcher Mosaic Glass Company of New York in 1886. Its unusual 
patented windows made of cast-lead frames and colored glass are illus- 
trated with watercolor and printed designs, many in the popular Japanese 

The pervasiveness of ceramics and glass in American culture ensures 
that researchers will continue to study primary documents to understand 
better many aspects of technology, cooking, eating and drinking, market- 
ing and trade, interior decoration, and architecture. Winterthur Library is 
fortunate to have assembled such an extensive array of these rare research 


Bert R. Denker 


Printed and manuscript primary documentation is nowhere more valuable 
than in the metalworking trades, for very few examples except silver are 
signed or marked by a craftsman. Consequently, researchers in metalwork 
use trade catalogues, invoices, account books, and inventories to link ar- 
tifaas to artisans. The library's extensive records of the business activities 
of silversmiths, brass founders, hardware importers, nailmakers, tinsmiths, 
engravers, clockmakers, jewelers, wheelwrights, and optical- and 
mathematical-instrument makers are therefore essential to identifying the 
makers of objects in Winterthur Museum's broad coUeaions, from high- 
style silver of eighteenth-century Philadelphia, New York, and Boston to 
nineteenth-century imported brass and silver-plated wares and American 
utilitarian wrought-iron cooking implements. The library's materials on 
metals are also important in revealing the economic and social relations 
among craftsmen and the conditions of trade. 

At the top of the hierarchy of craftsmen working in metal are 
goldsmiths and silversmiths, who provided the social elite, and later the 
middle class, with precious decorative and useful goods in the latest styles. 
Winterthur Library has such materials as commonplace books, letter 
books, and inventories from three generations of the Richardsons of Phila- 
delphia, a prominent family of silversmiths working in the colonies. Fran- 
cis Richardson (1681— 1729) worked at his trade by age twenty in 1701. 
Richardson's account book is immensely valuable because it records his 
relations with Philadelphia craftsmen, including Johannis Nys, a fellow 
silversmith from whom he purchased goods; and Richard Keeble, who 
served as journeyman or master in Richardson's shop and from whom he 
later bought piecework. His account books also record exchanges of 
wrought silver and cash for chemicals, tools, coral, and bulk silver. 

Both of Francis's sons, Francis, Jr. (1705— 82), and Joseph (171 1 — 
84), were trained by their father and became silversmiths. Joseph's com- 
monplace book provides a vivid description of his business transactions 
among Quaker craftsmen in eighteenth-century Philadelphia. Joseph's 
aesthetic and business relations are also indicated in the invoice book of 
Samuel Powel, a Philadelphia merchant, who records that Joseph re- 
quested him to purchase "an alphabet Cypher book to Engrave by [and] a 
book of Drafts to Draw by" during a 1724/25 trip to London. 


When Joseph retired from the silversmith's trade, his two sons, 
Joseph, Jr. (1752-1831), and Nathaniel (1754-1827), inherited the fam- 
ily business. The younger Joseph's letter book for the years 1777—90 
shows that he enjoyed a lively trade in imported scales and weights after 
the 1783 peace with England. Apparently, Philadelphians were demanding 
many other English goods as well, for an inventory of the shop of Joseph, 
Jr., and Nathaniel taken May 3 1, 1790, reveals a wide range of domestic 
and imported wares: "Salts with blue Glasses and Ladles," "pair Spurrs," 
"Pincushion chains," "Silver Whistles & Bells with Corals," "Egg Cups," 
"Toast Racks," and "15 pair box beam Scales in Shagreen cases." 

Other highlights of the library's materials on American gold- and 
silversmiths include the Stanley B. Ineson Collection, which contains in- 
voices for silver purchases, genealogical notes and data, photographs, 
drawings, and rubbings of silver marks compiled by Ineson, an early col- 
lector; the private letter book of Thomas Fletcher, which records the per- 
sonal activities of this prominent Philadelphia silversmith and jeweler; 
and an account book of Jabez Baldwin, a Salem silversmith and merchant. 
Baldwin's account book illustrates particularly well the diversity required 
of colonial and federal gold- and silversmiths who were expected to en- 
grave, repair watches, make gold mounts for hair jewelry, and fashion 
sugar tongs, spoons, and hoUowware. Baldwin's account book is also 
fascinating for its record of the stock owned by George Baker, who 

Fig. 18. Lewis Deblois, trade card, Bos- 
ton, 1757. Card: H. eVs", w. jV^'. 

The engraved trade card for Boston merchant 
Lewis Deblois is as notable for the skill and 
execution of its design as for its description of 
imported goods that Deblois sold. The Boston 
craftsman who engraved Deblois's card, 
Thomas Johnston (or Johnson, b. ca. 1708), 
was an engraver, portrait and heraldic painter, 
and "Japaner." The long list of goods Deblois 
imported "every Spring and Fall" indicates 
that although American manufacturers pro- 
duced utilitarian iron- and brasswares, con- 
sumers still desired English fancv- goods. 
Deblois used the back of this trade card as a 
receipt for a set of desk hardware that in- 
cluded brass drawer handles, escutcheons, 
locks, and hinges. 

-//t/c GoldenEagle m^^Jtffwi^Bofi 



'^tmr'aficsercNik miuciif/ifCmnti^)t)^bm.fe,idiM>ridfidl to 





Fig. 19. Brass furniture hardware and 
household items. From [Catalogue of 
Furniture Hardware and Sconces] [Bir- 
mingham, Eng.?, ca. 1770], pi. 4. Page: 
H. iiVa,", w. \jVi. 

This fold-out engraving of brass furniture 
hardware and related goods includes an 
elaborate rococo watch stand on a tripod 
base featuring a figure of Father Time amid 
putti, festoons, and scrollwork. As part of a 
trade catalogue for an unidentified Birmin- 
gham manufacturer, it provides an invalu- 
able resource for the study of imported 

trained under Jabez Baldwin and worked in Salem and Providence. 
Among the items owned by Baker were a "Gold Watch Repeater" priced 
at $109.84, a set of English silverware at $100.00, a set of Philadelphia 
silverware at $117.25, a caster set with cut-glass bottles at $24.40, and a 
Britannia wine funnel at $1.40. 

As the trade card for the shop of Lewis Deblois indicates (fig. 18), 
American merchants and craftsmen were as likely to import goods made 
of base metals as they were to import those of silver and gold. Among the 
more than thirty-five English pattern books at Winterthur concerning 
trade in base metals are two hardware catalogues originally owned by 
Samuel Rowland Fisher, a partner of Philadelphia mercantile firm Joshua 
Fisher and Sons. One contains saddlery and horse equipment sold by Lon- 
don firm Withers and Buchanan, as well as a manuscript list of prices 
charged for various styles of imported clock faces by John Wood. The 
second is an English brass founder's Catalogue of Doorknobs, Escutch- 
eons, Door Knockers, Furniture Brasses, Sconces, Etc. Many of the de- 
signs illustrated in this catalogue were sold to Philadelphia cabinetmakers 
and may be matched with hardware on chests of drawers and other furni- 
ture in Winterthur Museum. Elaborate rococo designs fill yet another 
Birmingham catalogue of furniture hardware and sconces (fig. 19), while 



Fig. 20. "The Gold Miner's Portable 
Kitchen . . . ." From Griffiths and 
Browett, [Catalogue] (Birmingham, 
Eng., [ca. i860]), p. 135. Page: H. SVi", 
w. 5 'A". 

As many Americans were journeying west in 
search of precious gold, England's metalwares 
industry sought its fortune in the base metals 
of tinplate and wrought and cast iron. In ad- 
dition to offering this portable kitchen, 
Griffiths and Browett tempted Americans 
with a wonderful variety of goods including 
bathtubs and shower baths, grocers' show- 
cases and canisters, and cake and jelly molds. 


fomfdfttlS' (a ! 


a wide range of utilitarian iron goods — including a "Gold Miner's Port- 
able Kitchen" (fig. 20) — appears in the i860 catalogue of Griffiths and 

Like their English counterparts, American brass founders, copper- 
smiths, and manufactories are well represented in the library's collections. 
An illustrated billhead for John Bailey, a brass founder, a coppersmith, 
and an ironmonger in New York, depicts a federal-style andiron, brass 
kettle, fireplace fender, knifebox, and chamberstick. This billhead, which 
acknowledges Bailey's receipt of £5.5.0 for a pair of andirons, also docu- 
ments Bailey's removal from zo Little Dock Street to 60 Water Street. An 
1892 catalogue for J. L. Mort Iron Works, New York, shows the wide 
variety of designs for copper and cast-iron weather vanes available from 



Fig. II. "Copper Weather Vanes." From 
J. L. Mott Iron Works, Illustrated Cata- 
logue "Q" and Price List: Vanes, Ban- 
nerets, Finials, &c. (New York and 
Chicago, 1892), p. 22. Page: H. ii'/2", 
w. 9 V4". 

Among the finest American weather vanes of 
the nineteenth century- are those from J. L. 
Mott Iron Works (estabhshed in i8i8) of 
New York and Chicago. This 1892 catalogue, 
which illustrates and describes a wide variet)- 
of vehicles, figures, and animals, may assist 
scholars in identifying surviving works from 
this manufaaory*. The most elaborate pat- 
terns, such as Columbus, King Gambrinus, 
and a seven-foot-long steam fire engine with 
horses and driver, could cost as much as 
$2.50. The catalogue states, "We do not, how- 
ever, limit ourselves to the manufacture of 
these designs only, but are prepared to give 
estimates on Architects' original designs, 
guaranteeing strictly first-class work at mod- 
erate prices." 


Plate 40-Q 

Pri..F, Sit ili.h« Ion;;, moiinU,] eomplel 
{.Htrn and HaJU. . 

Pn-v XI >ncli«.. loDi;. inr.iinl«.l „ 


Pl*te 42-Q 

Sn-Btl. BOBIEB. 

Plate 43-Q, 

Pricr. 'M incIiFC lonc- nioitnlnl i-«i>ipli'tr wilK S|.>r 

LMten and Ball*. . . . . 

Plaie 44 -Q. 

' :iA inch'-* J'lii).'. muuulvj r.>ii>|>lci' nitli S|i 

Plate 4d-Q. 
setter doc- 


d Bull- 

this well-known manufacturer (fig. 21). A wide variety of designs is also 
evident in the work of Philadelphia coppersmith Robert Orr, whose trade 
card boasts, "Stills of all sizes: brewers, dyers, soap boilers, rope-makers, 
hatters, kettles, house pipes, ships stoves, etc." 

Records of early American iron furnaces, forges, and blacksmiths are 
especially revealing about everyday life since they provide information 
about utilitarian goods, the active system of barter, and the industrial 
framework of the colonies and the early Republic. Account books for 
Berkshire Furnace, Berks County, Pennsylvania, record the sale of locks, 
skillets, a "'/i Tun of Dutch Stoves," "700 [pounds of] Bare Iron," and 
"3 Tun Stoves." The credit side of the furnace's ledgers is just as fascinat- 
ing as the debit one, for it shows the company exchanging goods for 
twenty-one pairs of shoes. Labor historians may also be interested to learn 
that in 1789, Michael Wood, an employee of Berkshire Furnace, was paid 
£20 for the services that his wife performed in keeping a company house 


Fig. 22. George Christian Gebelein, Hot- 
Water Kettle on Stand, ca. 19 15. Pencil, 
ink, transparent watercolor, and 
gouache on paper; H. 22", w. 1 5". 

Foremost among American silversmiths of the 
early twentieth century was George Christian 
Gebelein (1878— 1945) who opened his own 
shop in Boston in 1909. Gebelein is best 
known for crafting silver in the style of Paul 
Revere, Jr., and other early American makers, 
although he also worked silver m the hand- 
hammered style of the arts and crafts move- 
ment. This finished presentation drawing of a 
hot-water kettle on stand is one of the library's 
many fine examples of Gebelein's colonial 
revival work. 

for the year. A strength of Winterthur Library's materials relating to 
American furnaces and forges is that its holdings cover a wide geographic 
range. The collections contain, for example, business records or accounts 
for Joseph Holmes Iron Works in Kingston, Massachusetts; Martick Iron 
Works in Smithburg, Pennsylvania; Ramapo Iron Works in Haverstraw, 
New York; and Trimble's Iron Works in an unidentifed Kentucky town. 

Fortunately, the American colonial revival in the early decades of this 
century brought to early American handcrafted items and the artisans 
who made them much deserved recognition and appreciation. No doubt, 
some of the prestige that early American metalcrafts gained during this 
century was due to the influence of modern artisans such as George Chris- 
tian Gebelein who brought the work of earlier generations to the attention 
of a broad modern audience. Gebelein of Boston, among this century's 
foremost silversmiths, based much of his work on prototypes by colonial 
silversmiths. The library has recently acquired many of Gebelein's prelimi- 
nary sketches and presentation drawings for clients (fig. zz), thereby en- 
hancing an already strong collection of manuscripts and photographs 
documenting early twentieth-century American metalworkers. 

The unexpected diversity of the library's materials on the metalwork- 
ing trades is epitomized by a rare hand-colored Map of the Valley of the 
Sacramento including the Gold Region. Published in Boston by T. Wiley, 
Jr., in 1848, it provided direction to many pioneer miners who flocked to 
Cahfornia for gold, by instructing ship captains entering San Francisco 
Bay to "keep White Island open with the south shore and run for it within 
the harbor." In its reminder of the daunting 17,000 miles between New 
York and San Francisco via the Cape of Good Hope, the map inspires 
appreciation and respect for the products of American artisans working in 


Neville Thompson 

Textiles and Needlework 

Because textiles and needlework are highly perishable, information about 
their design, production, and use is elusive. A considerable body of litera- 
ture describes textile design and manufacture by hand and by machine, 
but records of the use and appearance of actual fabrics in daily hfe are 
more difficult to come by and consequently more valued. Fortunately, 
some manufacturers' and retailers' swatch books, trade catalogues, and 
trade cards survive, as do relatively scarce instruction books for cutting 
and fitting household textiles and early photographs of clothes and in- 
teriors. However, such sources become progressively less common as one 
moves backward in time. 

Fabric samples and swatches are vital primary documentation. Found 
in a surprising variety of sources, samples and swatches often retain their 
original, vivid colors. Such early nineteenth-century periodicals as 
Rudolph Ackermann's Repository of Arts and its German counterpart, 
the journal des Liixtts imd der Moden, include tipped-in fabric samples 
advertising each nation's domestic manufactures. Other fabric samples 
are found in the library's extensive collection of swatch books, which sets 
forth the range of textile choices available to consumers in, among other 
times and places, mid nineteenth-century France and late eighteenth- 
century England. Such swatch books are valuable as well for the links 
they provide between obscure textile terms and the actual fabrics to which 
they refer. Yet other sources, such as trade catalogues, preserve samples of 
fabrics ranging from late nineteenth-century men's suiting to Shaker chair 
tapes. An early nineteenth-century instruction book for household needle- 
work by the British and Foreign School Society contains actual examples 
of darning and hemming and even an exquisitely sewn baby's bonnet. 
The library's most extraordinary artifacts of fabric use and ownership, 
however, are the three scrapbooks assembled by Kate S. Harris of Salem 
County, New Jersey, in the i88os. Here, carefully preserved and meticu- 
lously annotated, are scores of samples of clothing and furnishing textiles 
gathered from her own family and from those of friends and neighbors. 
One scrapbook is of wedding fabrics alone. As a group, Harris's scrap- 
books form a most valuable record of fabric use at a specific time and 


Fig. 23. "Corona di vari suoni." From 
Cesare Vecellio, Corono delle nobili et 
virtuose donne . . . (2d ed.; Venice, 
[1600-1625]), leaf [Bbb 6]. Page: h. 

$Va,", w. 7'/2". 

This illustration depias one leaf from a hand- 
some collection of lace designs made in Ven- 
ice, a city renowned for lacemaking for many 
centuries. Although Vecellio's Corono is one 
of the earliest printed pattern books for the 
handicrafts, it is among the most visually 


Corona di vari fuoni: 



Tuttala Mufic;iinficme perpafsartemporaolte 
Damme & Damigelle 

Scholars also learn about the uses of actual fabrics from printed 
books and photographs. While many handsome compilations contain 
countless variations of designs for window draperies or bed hangings, 
fewer sources can tell us just how such hangings were constructed. James 
Arrowsmith's Analysis of Drapery may lack the visual punch of its hand- 
some contemporary, Pierre de La Mesangere's Collection des meubles et 
objets de gout, which contains plates of furniture and window hangings, 
but Arrowsmith's work is prized today for its scaled cutting diagrams and 
fabric measurement charts. A similar volume, John Saville Crofton's Lon- 
don Upholsterer's Companion, outlines the techniques of upholster)' at 
the dawn of the great age of stuffing, from the viewpoint of a practitioner. 
Photographically illustrated trade catalogues from the later decades of the 
nineteenth century are useful because they record upholstered pieces as 
they actually appeared. Their importance for curator and conservator is 

Although design books do not indicate directly how textiles were 
used, they help researchers to identify patterns and manufacturers. Design 
books for the textile arts have existed for centuries. One of the earliest in 
Winterthur Library is Cesare Vecellio's Corono delle nobili et virtuose 
donne, a collection of lace designs printed in Venice between 1600 and 
1625 (fig. 2.3). Among the library's most spectacular design books is a 


full-color textile design album of paisleys, probably from early nineteenth- 
centurv' France. Another design manuscript, also thought to be French, 
sets out a handloom weaver's draft designs for executing floral-pattern 
textiles. Fully colored and properly scaled finished designs appear on the 
same pages on which they were drafted (pi. 8). A manuscript design book 
of particular interest to Delaw- areans is the library's volume of calico pat- 
terns associated with the textile mill briefly operated on the Brandywine 
Creek near Wilmington by Irish political refugee Archibald Hamilton 
Rowan. While the venture failed, the designs themselves are lively and 

Like their fellow textileworkers, embroiderers have turned to many 
sources for designs over the centuries. The charming woodcuts in Edward 
Topsell's History of Four-Footed Beasts and Serpents may be anatomically 
fanciful, but it provided popular embroidery patterns for many years (fig. 
Z4). Much later, as nineteenth-century housewives stopped manufacturing 


Tit 1 iHmr ef Itf^s : or. 

Boor I. 

Fig. 24. Butterflies. From Edward 
Topsell, The History of Four-Footed 
Beasts and Serpents . . . Whereunto Is 
Now Added, the Theatre of Insects . . . 
by T. Muffet . . . (London; Printed by 
E. C, 1658), p. 964. Page: H. 13 'A", 
W. 8 1/4". 

Topsell's imaginative book of natural history 
included in this edition Thomas Mutfet's simi- 
lar work on insects, which was previously 
published separately. Muffet's work was in 
turn based on that of Conrad Gessner, a 
pioneer of natural-history illustration. To- 
gether, Topsell's and Muffet's studies became 
a classic source for subsequent illustrators and 
designers, including embroiderers, who would 
transfer motifs such as the butterflies shown 
here to fabric by pricking holes through the 
paper mto a cloth below. 

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ejri oceejinj wh.n; J.'"" 

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koMv nocTrhethn Itruy i.oi9Cic fbrs AkniHt on pue to b. 
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itn} piiaicdenry trb:x 9D9ET thcctffCI Viib'ti^ ot tbe Uioe 


Fig. Z5. Weaver's draft design, probably 
for a coverlet. From Johann Michael 
Frickinger, Niitzliches in lauter auser- 
lesenen, wohl-approbirt- und meisten- 
theils Neu-inventtrten Miistern bes- 
tehendes, Weber-Bild-Buch . . . {Neu- 
stadt and Leipzig: Jacob Samuel Fried- 
rich Riedel, 1783), leaf [41]. Page: h. 
9V4", w. 12". 

Weavers' draft books, such as the one illus- 
trated here, were brought to America by im- 
migrant professional weavers and used well 
into the nineteenth century. 

most textiles for their homes, a different sort of needlework book sprang 
up, containing detailed instructions for producing "fancywork" items 
such as pen wipers and hair receivers. The titles of these books, such as 
Lonely Hours: A Text-book of Knitting, by an American Lady, evoke the 
housewife's daily lot and the role that handwork played in filling her life. 

Nineteenth-century trade cards and trade catalogues also provide 
valuable information about textiles. The hbrary is especially fortunate in 
having a large collection of trade cards and catalogues for sewing 
machines, a technological miracle in the nineteenth century. Despite such 
technological breakthroughs, handloom weavers still traveled with looms 
and manuscript or printed drafts or patterns. One printed pattern book 
in the library is Johann Michael Frickinger's Niitzliches in lauter auser- 
lesenen, published in Leipzig in the eighteenth century. Tradition has it 
that Winterthur's copy was used in central Pennsylvania in the mid 
nineteenth century. The striking graphic quality of its weaving patterns 
seems quite contemporary today (fig. 25). 

The textile and needlework documents discussed above, as well as 
others in Winterthur Library, share one quality: they are a pleasure to 
examine, tempting even the most disciplined researcher to abandon the 
collection of data and surrender to the sheer enjoyment of color and 


Paul B. Hensley 


Winterthur Library's materials on landscape gardening consist of archival, 
printed, and manuscript works reflecting both the histor\' of the du Pont 
family and the development of landscape design in America and Europe. 

Henry Francis du Font's interest in landscape gardening was whetted 
during the first two decades of the twentieth century. During this time, the 
garden at Winterthur became a testing ground for color in landscape de- 
sign. To record his experiments with color, du Pont and his administrative 
assistant, H. B. McCollum, took some 400 images on glass between 19 10 
and 19 1 6. This sumptuous collection of autochromes is now housed in 
Winterthur Archives. Representative of this collection is a magnificent 
view of a clematis-covered bathhouse surrounded by peonies (pi. 9). 

It was also during the first two decades of the century that the re- 
lationship between the du Pont country house at Winterthur and its sur- 
rounding landscape became firmly fixed in du Pom's mind. The need to 
integrate architecture with the adjacent landscape was no doubt reinforced 
for him when in 19 14 he went to England with his father, Henry Alger- 
non du Pont, to visit country homes and gardens there. 

Soon after Henry Francis du Pont became master of Winterthur in 
1926, he began planning a grand landscape garden that would comple- 
ment his antiques collection and reflect his intention eventually to turn his 
house into a public museum. To this end, he called on family friend and 
noted landscape architect Marian Cruger Coffin. Although Coffin had 
been heavily influenced by classical design in graduate school at Massa- 
chusetts Institute of Technology, she reached an important turning point 
in the early 1 900s when she traveled to England and met famous land- 
scape architect Gertrude Jekyll. Coffin was tremendously impressed by 
the way Jekyll synthesized the "natural garden" concept and a more classi- 
cal design approach. Much of Coffin's later work would reflect Jekyll's 
sensitivity to horticulture and her engaging use of color. The letters, draw- 
ings, and photographs in the Marian Coffin Collection reveal Coffin's 
pervasive influence on Winterthur from the 1930s until her death in 1957. 
Coffin's papers are also important in documenting her work for other no- 
table clients, including Marshall Field, Frederick Frelinghuysen, Edward F. 
Hutton, Wilham Marshall Bullitt, Childs Frick, and Frederick Vanderbilt, 


Fig. z6. Robert Brost, bathhouse, 1935. 
Stereograph; H. 3 Vi", w. 7". 

When Henry Francis du Pont added a massive 
addition to his house at Winterthur in 1929/ 
30, the upper terrace of the Formal Garden 
was altered dramatically. A large rectangular 
swimming pool replaced the origmal smaller 
pool, and two bathhouses supplanted the 
Pavilion. This stereo view taken in May r 9 ? 5 
shows one of the new bathhouses. 

as well as in recording work for her own gardens at Wendover in Watch 
Hill, Rhode Island, and in New Haven, Connecticut. 

With Coffin's help, Winterthur gardens had been spectacularly re- 
fined and enlarged by the late 1930s. In recognition of these improve- 
ments, in 1935 du Pont hired Robert Brost, an expert in stereoscopic 
photography, to make stereographic prints, some of them hand tinted, of 
key areas of the garden. The resulting stereo views, which are now in the 
Robert Brost Stereocard Collection, record a critical period in the develop- 
ment of Winterthur garden. A particularly lovely image shows one of the 
imposing bathhouses in the swimming pool area (fig. 26). 

As Winterthur became a public museum and developed a graduate 
program in early American culture, the library began collecting publica- 
tions on landscape gardening that would augment the fine body of hor- 
ticultural literature amassed by Henry Algernon and Henry Francis 
du Pont. It also focused its collecting efforts on securing works that would 
provide a broad English and Continental background for American land- 
scape theory and design in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. As a 
result, Winterthur Library now lists among its holdings Andre Le Notre's 
untitled treatise on formal Continental gardening styles and John Laur- 
ence's Clergy-Man's Recreation on English vernacular gardening. Other 
eighteenth-century titles in the library focus on French and Italian formal 
garden design, as well as oriental gardening. Nineteenth-century publica- 


Fig. 27. "An Aviary." From John 
Buonarotti Papworth, Hints on Orna- 
mental Gardening: Consisting of a Series 
of Designs for Garden Buildings, Useful 
and Decorative Gates, Fences, Rail- 
roads, &c. (London: R. Ackermann, 
1823), pi. 6. Page: H. 11", w. 7V1". 

In the nineteenth century, aviaries were typi- 
cally designed to embellish extensive gardens, 
not for practical purposes. Papworth recom- 
mended that they "be situated on a small is- 
land in a retired portion of the estate, not far 
distant from the mansion" {p. 54). 

Fig. 28. "Rhynlandsche Voetmaat." 
From G. Van Laar, Magazijn van Tuin- 
Sieraaden (Amsterdam: J. de Ruyter, 
[i8oz]), pi. 157. Page: H. 11V4", w. 9". 

These images of a country irm and garden 
bridge create an atmosphere of safety and re- 
flection, feelings often fostered by rural land- 
scape literature. 

tions in the library include Richard Morris's Essays on Landscape Gar- 
dening and on Uniting Picturesque Effect with Rural Scenery, Humphrey 
Repton's Fragments on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening, 
and John B. Papworth's Hints on Ornamental Gardening. The last con- 
tains marvelous illustrations, one of them of an aviary amid a lush garden 
(fig. 27). Beautiful illustrations of landscapes are also found in G. Van 
Laar's Magazijn van Tuin-Sieraaden (fig. 28) and John Allen's Victoria 
Regia (fig. 29). In both England and America, the influence of formal or 
classical design in landscape gardening diminished as the influence of the 
rural aesthetic increased. Richard Morris suggested the importance of the 
rural aesthetic as early as 1825, a point reinforced by the title of John C. 
Loudon's 1842 treatise on the science and practice of landscape manage- 
ment, The Suburban Horticttlturalist. After Loudon, many works such as 
the Villa Gardener focused squarely on the suburbs. 

In addition to the above printed and archival works, the library has 
been fortunate in collecting a number of manuscript and personal items 
that help researchers to understand landscape gardening in America. An 
anonymous nineteenth-century scrapbook entitled "Waste Book" contains 
a rare landscape drawing of Fairhill, the eighteenth-century Philadelphia 
home of Isaac Norris. The library also has photographs of the garden of 
H. Gates Lloyd at Allgates in Haverford, Pennsylvania. But the most en- 
gaging item in the collection might well be the keepsake album of Mary 
Eliza Bachman, dated 1835. This little book contains watercolor drawings 
of flowers and birds and a frontispiece illustration of a woman contem- 


Fig. 29. Water lily. From John Allen, 
Victoria Kegia; or. The Great Water Lily 
of America (Boston: Dutton and Went- 
vvorth, 1854), pi. [6]. Page: H. 22", w. 

Discovered in South America in 1803, the 
water lily was given the name Victoria Regia 
in 1837. 

plating her garden. Bachman has also pressed a dried flower into a page 
and recorded her spontaneous thoughts on gardens and nature, including 
a poem entitled "Reflections on a Flower Plant Destroyed by Frost." 

The poem below the frontispiece of Bachman's keepsake album rings 
true for landscape lovers of all times and ages, including Henry Francis 
du Pont: "Gay pleasure-grounds are my delight / Adorned with flowers 
selea & bright." 


Katharine Martinez 

Art and Artists 



Fig. 30. Human figures. From John Ru- 
bens Smith, A Compendium of Pictur- 
esque Anatomy Applied to the Arts 
(Boston: By the author, 1827), pi. i. 
Page: H. iSVs", w. 16". 

The irascible artist Smith published several 
instruaional books as he moved his drawing 
academy from Boston to Brooklyn to Phila- 
delphia. XX'hile in Boston he published his 
Compendium, a handsome anatomy publica- 
tion for artists. Letters of "approbation" from 
Washington Allston and Gilbert Stuart were 
placed prominently on the title page. 

Pictures are an integral part of our everyday world. A newspaper or 
magazine without pictures is impossible to imagine. In the eighteenth cen- 
tury, people also enjoyed pictures in magazines and almanacs, or on shop 
signs and trade cards. The library's hand-colored trade card for Raphaelle 
and Rembrandt Peale demonstrates only one of the many uses to which 
illustrations have been put. By the end of the nineteenth century, illus- 
trated books, magazines, greeting cards, calendars, and sheet music were 
found in many American homes, while illustrated product labels, bill- 
heads, and letterheads enlivened the business world. In addition, most 
American cities boasted at least one commercial art gallery where framed 
paintings could be purchased. 

Among both professional artists and amateurs, a lively market de- 
veloped in America and Europe for instruaional manuals and books on 
aesthetics, perspective, color theory, physiognomy, and anatomy. John 
Rubens Smith's Compendhnn of Picturesque Anatomy, for example, was 
specifically designed to aid artists in drawing human figures (fig. 30). 
Another manual concerned with the human figure is Cipriani and Bar- 
tolozzi's Rudiments of Drawing, which begins with simple drawing les- 
sons—studies of eyes, mouths, ears, hands, and feet— and proceeds to 
more complicated views of posed figures, draped and undraped, or classi- 
cal sculpture. Apparently, authors of instructional manuals generally sub- 
scribed to the confident declaration on the cover of John Gadsby Chap- 
man's American Dratving Book: "Anyone who can learn to write, can 
learn to draw." Persons aspiring to gentility were further encouraged to 
draw by authors such as Henry Peacham, a seventeenth-century version 
of Miss Manners, who in the Compleat Gentleman considered the ability 
to draw "a quality most commendable." 

Some instructional manuals covered a variety of techniques, among 
them Thomas E. B. Shillinglaw's handwritten instructional volume, which 
promised lessons in, for example, drawing; oil, watercolor, and velvet 
painting; oriental and mezzo tinting; crayoning; and transferring. Others, 
however, were earmarked for young men or women, either as a means to 
greater gentility or as a training tool for draftsmen. Draftsmen were fortu- 
nate in being able to selea titles to suit specific occupational needs. Vari- 


Otis Sketches of Shipping and Introduction to Drawing Ships were in- 
tended for draftsmen in shipbuilding, while Seth Eastman's Treatise on 
Topographical Drawing provided military cadets with detailed instruc- 
tions for drawing maps that would facilitate the movement of cavalry, 
artillery, and infantr)'. For sketching or needlework, young draftsmen's 
sisters could select designs from portfolios of flower prints such as Kilburn 
and Dodd's New Book of Sprigs of Flowers. Also available was George 
Brookshaw's illustrated volume on sketching bouquets, a work that in- 
cluded suggestions on the best way to arrange flowers and the most ap- 
propriate colors for arrangements. Young ladies with particularly nimble 
fingers could copy the lively and sometimes amusing silhouettes in Barbara 
Anne Townshend's Introduction to the Art of Cutting Groups of Figures, 
Flowers, Birds, etc. in Black Paper (fig. 31). Perhaps the most intriguing 
teaching device owned by the library, though, is The Protean Figure and 
Metamorphic Costumes published in 181 1 (figs. 32, 33). Usually de- 
scribed as a paper doU, the Protean figure was actually meant to be used 
as an artistic model. The customer who purchased this male paper figure 
would dress it in costume and place it against a colored aquatint landscape 
that served as a neutral backdrop. The publishers of the Protean Figure, 
S. and J. Fuller, were known for producing handsome drawing manuals, 
such as David Cox's Treatise on Landscape Painting and Young Artist's 

In the early nineteenth century, the rage for watercolor landscape 
painting fueled the market for an extraordinary body of hand-colored 
instructional books. John Laporte's Progress of a Water-colored Drawing 
demonstrates the development of a single drawing through fourteen 
stages, beginning with soft-ground etching and adding layers of water- 
color washes imtil the drawing is completed. Equally magnificent is John 

Fig. 31. Cutting figures. From Barbara 
Anne Townshend, Introduction to the 
Art of Cutting Groups of Flowers, Fig- 
ures, Birds, etc. m Black Paper (London: 
Edward Orme, 181 5— 16), pi. i. Page: 
H. izVi", w. 18". 

Townshend advised those wishing to learn 
paper cutting to "form the figures with the 
sassors without the aid of a pencil," begin- 
ning with the feet and back and then proceed- 
ing to the hands. Edward Orme, the book's 
publisher, is best known for producing Git- 
pin's Day, a fine landscape drawing manual 
with watercolored aquatint illustradons. 



Fig. 33. Knight's costume tor the Pro- 
tean figure in figure 3 2. From The Pro- 
tean Figure iind Metamorphtc Costumes 
(London: S. and J. Fuller, 181 1). 

In addition to the complete set of armor seen 
here, the Protean figure came with twelve 
hand-colored sets of clothes, including a naval 
uniform, a walking outfit, and a Turkish 

Fig. 3 2. Protean figure. From The Pro- 
tean Figure and Metamorphtc Costumes 
(London: S. and J. Fuller, 181 1). Page: 
H. isV-i", w. to'A". 

Purchasers of the Protean figure were to place 
the figure on the colored aquatint landscape 
so that his "Heels fill up space left for them 
in the shaded parts of the gravel walk." 

Hassell's Aqua Pictura, which illustrates each of the steps— etching the 
outline, applying monochrome aquatint ground, filling in light and shaded 
areas, and applying transparent watercolor washes — required to produce 
the work's sixteen aquatints modeled on the work of the best contempo- 
rary watercolor landscapists. In addition, Hassell's text is interspersed 
with dabs of actual watercolors to show the exact tint of the colors 
described in the text. 

Another important source of information about artists and their 
work is the pocket-size notebooks that many artists kept for spontane- 
ously sketching people, events, or scenery; recording recipes for mixing 
paint; and penning observations about the work of other artists. John 
Lewis Krimmel's seven sketchbooks are particularly illuminating for their 



Fig. 34. Sketch of Harriet Hosmer. From 
Anna Thackery to Mary James, War- 
sash, Titchfield, Eng., September 23, 
1867. Page: H. 7", w. 4V1". 

Hosmer defied convention by becoming a pro- 
fessional sculptress and establishmg a studio 
in Rome where she created full-size figures in 
marble on classical and literary subjeas. De- 
spite her rather eccentric manner of dressing, 
she was well liked among Rome's expatriate 
society and traveled widely visiting friends 
throughout Europe. 

detailed watercolor depictions of American domestic life in the i8ios and 
1 820s. By contrast, John La Farge's sketchbook is less a record of his sur- 
roundings than his mental notebook, a medium for recording stages in 
the process of creation. 

Much insight into the private impressions that inform an artist's 
work can be gained through studying his or her correspondence. The li- 
brary's colleaion of long, chatty letters that painter Thomas Sully and his 
daughter Blanche wrote home to Philadelphia during an 1837/38 trip to 
London describe meetings with various artists, dining out, and art exhibi- 
tions, as well as provide valuable information about the progress of Sully's 
portrait of young Queen Victoria. Frederic Edwin Church's letters to his 
parents and sister Charlotte while traveling in South America in 1853 
describe a more exotic adventure than Sully's. Descriptions of artists in 
the correspondence of their contemporaries can be equally illuminating 
about an artist's work or character. While visiting friends in England, 
Harriet Hosmer, an American sculptress who received a £100,000 com- 
mission for a memorial to Lincoln, was briefly but insightfully described 
in a letter by another houseguest, Anna Thackery: "Miss Hosmer ... is 
very funny & good humoured with short hair & petticoats & neatest 
little boots & so like a merry little that its impossible not to like her." 
The description is accompanied by a sketch of the sculptress (fig. 34). 

What pictures did Americans actually hang on their walls? The an- 
swer is often elusive, but sources such as the inventory left by Thomas 
Gilpin, a Wilmington, Delaware, paper manufacturer, provide a glimpse 
inside American homes. Compiled between 1839 and 1844, the inventory 
is unusual in listing the paintings and prints in Gilpin's collection by both 
their titles and their artist's name. Gilpin's taste and pocketbook led him 
to collect the work of European old masters as well as that of contempo- 
rary American artists. In addition to paintings of biblical scenes by Claude 
Lorrain, he owned two landscapes by Thomas Doughty, a framed draw- 
ing by Benjamin Latrobe, and several drawings by John James Barralet, as 
well as numerous engravings. 

Household inventories of home libraries are also useful sources of 
information about the public's taste in art. Gilpin's library contained 
numerous works on art and aesthetics, an appropriate assemblage for a 
gentleman collector. Gilpin's inventory reveals that he owned Charles 
Joseph Hullmandel's Art of Drawing on Stone and Laporte's Progress of 
a Water-colored Drawing among other works. The library of New York 
lithographer George Endicott was more utilitarian, reflecting a working 
artist's need for sources of visual ideas. Listed in the mventory of his estate 
were "Le Brun's Passions'" and "Knights books." The former probably 
refers to a reprint of Charles Le Brun's seventeenth-century study of 


physiognomy, while the latter refers to the highly popular publications of 
Frederick Knight who issued countless books illustrating ornamental 
motifs for artists during the 1820s and 1830s. Both Le Brun's and 
Knight's books were compendiums of useful images and motifs for artists, 
somewhat akin to pattern books produced for craftsmen. Such evidence 
about the kinds of art books owned by patrons and artists significantly 
enlivens our understanding of the American art scene. 

Documents at Winterthur about everyday life in America allow re- 
searchers to understand better the lives of both professional and amateur 
artists. The great number of publications addressed to amateurs attests to 
the public's hunger for artistic expression. As Americans increasingly took 
up the brush or the needle as a leisure activity, they also became more 
receptive to works by professional artists and increasingly welcomed into 
the home paintings and sculpture as decorative items. The public was also 
exposed to art in the form of advertisements, and the library supplies 
ample materials for studying the important role that pictures played in 
commerce. Winterthur Library's collections concerning professional, 
amateur, and commercial art provide a comprehensive description of the 
artistic efforts of Americans and demonstrate the contribution of many 
kinds of artists to American culture. 



Katharine Martinez 


Fig. 35. Paper doll and accessories. 
From La Psyche; ou, Le petit magasin 
de modes (France, 18ZO-29). Page: h. 


Psyche refers to the free-standing mirror, a 
new furniture form introduced in the early 
nineteenth century and to the beautiful 
mortal with whom Cupid fell in love. 

It is astonishing that any paper dolls, games, and books created for chil- 
dren survived their loving but vigorous hands. Modern historians owe an 
enormous debt to adult collectors of such seemingly frivolous items. One 
such collector, Maxine Waldron, donated her fine collection of children's 
books and paper toys to Winterthur Library in 1974. Containing materi- 
als from the early 1600s to the 1960s, the Maxine Waldron Collection of 
Children's and Paper Toys reflects changing attitudes toward childhood 
over four centuries. 

The most fragile items in the collection are paper dolls, of which Wal- 
dron was especially fond. As an only child who often had to play alone, 
Waldron spent many happy hours with her paper dolls, a fact reflected in 
the hundreds of paper dolls in her collection. Among the rarest items in 
the Waldron Collection is a chenille-embroidery-on-silk costume of a 
seventeenth-century paper doll. Such dolls were actually used by dress- 
makers to illustrate the latest fashions for wealthy ladies rather than as 
toys for children. A similar purpose was served by the faceless figures in a 
tiny volume of watercolors titled Coiffures. Illustrating elaborate French 
coiffures and gowns, these figures are intended to be placed over a head 
shown in an accompanying oval frame. The above rare fashion dolls seem 
plain, however, when compared with La psyche, an early nineteenth- 
century paper doll with elaborate costumes that include hats, a shawl, 
and a cloak, as well as a tiny full-length mirror (fig. 35). 

Advances in printing and coloring in the mid nineteenth century en- 
abled children to choose from an enormous variety of printed dolls for 
the first time. The first lithographed American paper doll, Fanny Gray, 
appeared in Boston in 1854. Fanny came with five action costumes, a 
bonnet, a stand, a paper background, and a booklet. Soon paper-doll 
families were widely available, and personalities such as Jenny Lind, 
Fanny Elssler, Tom Thumb, Napoleon, and Queen Victoria became favor- 
ite playthings. Boys also enjoyed paper dolls, playing with paper soldiers 
and military heroes. When printed dolls were unavailable, children often 
made their own from paper and bits of fabric in their mother's scrap bag. 
Anson Davies Fitz Randolph's Paper Dolls and How to Make Them and 
C. D. Allair's Paper Doll's Furniture: How to Make It are two books in 


Fig. 36. "Fanny in a red cloalc, with a 
hat in her hand, begging her bread." 
From The History of Little Fanny (id 
ed.; Philadelphia: Morgan and Yeager, 
1825), pi. 3. Page: H. 4V1", w. 3V2". 

"Can this be Fanny, once so neat and clean?" 
According to the story, Fanny was too fond 
of playing and not interested in being an 
obedient child. "But learn from this," ad- 
monished the narrator. Fanny was kidnapped 
from her well-to-do family by beggars when 
she strayed to admire a shop window (p. 7). 

the 1 850s that provided children with ideas and guidehnes for making 
dolls themselves. The library owns several sets of handmade paper dolls. 

The Waldron Collection also includes numerous settings and acces- 
sories for dolls. The Dairy and the Poultry Yard contains forty-two paper 
barnyard animals on wooden stands that can be set against a paper back- 
ground, while the L'interieur de la poupee, which comes with a paper-doll 
family and furniture, including a fabric rug, is a three-sided doll parlor. 
Another paper toy collected by Waldron is a late nineteenth-century pup- 
pet house by Lothar Meggendorfer. Among the most elaborate three- 
dimensional toys in the collection is The Forty Thieves: A Drama, a toy 
theater that has paper-doll characters, scenery, and a play script. Waldron 
was also fascinated by paper toys unconnected with dolls, such as card 
games, panoramas, puzzles, and peep shows. The last are accordion- 
folded tunnels through which one peeks to see a tableau or an imaginary 

Fortunately, researchers attempting to understand the experience of 
childhood in earlier ages are not dependent on surviving toys alone. The 
business records and advertisements of manufacturers and distributors 
provide much useful information about playthings and other aspects of 
daily life. From sources such as Lewis Page's business correspondence, 
students of childhood now know that many toys in America in the early 
nineteenth century were made in Germany. According to his letters. Page, 
a New York merchant, imported German toys between 1829 and 1833. 
Another source of information on toys is an extraordinary illustrated cata- 
logue of German toys, dating from 1818101839. This catalogue, which 
consists of 135 watercolors by an unknown distributor, provides a rich 
resource for studying United States toy imports in the early nineteenth 
century and the influence of German prototypes on American manufactur- 
ers (pi. 10). 

Since Waldron was as fond of children's books as she was of chil- 
dren's toys, she also had a strong collection of written works for children. 
Among the most appealing are those with "pop-up" and movable parts. 
Before the term pop-up was coined in the 1930s, publishers used other 
words for these attention-getting devices. German publisher Ernest Nister 
called some of his inventive movable books "panoramas" and referred to 
others as "transformations" or "revolving pictures." Transformations are 
small picture books with illustrations on flaps that, when turned, trans- 
form one image into another. Wliatever they have been called at various 
times, such works take into account children's interest in movable objects 
and short attention spans. 

Waldron's interest in books was not limited to those with clever de- 


Fig. 37. "Fanny restored to her former 
station." From The History of Little 
Fanny (zd ed.; Philadelphia; Morgan 
and Yeager, 1825), pi. 7. Page: h. 4V2", 
w. 3 Vi". 

Fanny became an errand girl for a fish monger 
and then for a dairyman. One day she found 
herself sent to her mother's house to deliver 
butter. "Alas! I cannot enter there," she cried, 
but happily her mother welcomed her home. 
This last illustration in the story shows the 
restored Fanny, "no longer idle, proud, or 
vain" (p. 15). 

vices. She also collected books intended to teach children lessons about 
life and the world around them. The woodcuts of a seventeenth-century 
work by Johann Amos Comenius entitled Orbis Senstialiitm Pictiis com- 
prise a visual encyclopedia of "all the chief things that are in the world 
and man's employments therein" (1777 London ed., title p.). The con- 
tinued popularity of such visual compendiums is attested by A Museum 
and Panorama for Instruction and Amusement of Our Young Friends, 
which features exquisite hand-colored engravings of exotic birds, plants, 
and animals, and Ann Taylor Gilbert's City Scenes; or, A Peep into Lon- 
don, which intersperses views of the city's monuments and other sights 
with lessons about good and bad occupations. An American version is the 
American Sunday-School Union's City Sights for Coimtry Eyes, which 
depicts oystermen, icemen, ragmen, and others at work. 

Commonly, books that introduced children to work as well as more 
familiar storybooks contained instruction on good behavior. The cau- 
tionary tale of Little Fanny, originally published in London in 1 810, de- 
pias a vain and idle young lady who is rescued from a series of misadven- 
tures that would have undoubtedly resulted in moral and social disgrace. 
The success of this work inspired both reproductions and imitations. Its 
illustrations were reproduced in Die Kleine Fanny, published circa 181 5, 
and served as a model for Phebe; ou, La Piete Filiale in 1 8 1 7. One of the 
nicest editions of this moralistic tale is a hand-colored Philadelphia version 
titled The History of Little Fanny (fig. 36). In the book's happy ending, 
Fanny becomes "Pious, modest, dihgent and mild, belov'd by all, a good 
and happy child" (p. 15) (fig. 37). The History of Little Goody Ttvoshoes, 
Little Helen; or, A Day in the Life of a Naughty Girl, Amaud Berquin's 
Blossoms of Morality, and Alice Bradley Haven's "All's Not Gold That 
Glitters," also made little attempt to disguise their pedagogic purpose. 
Neither did the board game entitled Newton's New Game of Virtue Re- 
warded and Vice Punished for the Amusement of Youth of Both Sexes. 

In addition to providing social historians with information about the 
social and moral conduct expected of children, storybooks convey infor- 
mation about children's activities and desires difficult to discover from 
other sources. The woodcuts of A Little Pretty Pocket-Book show boys 
playing hopscotch»and a handball game popularly known in England as 
"game of fives" (fig. ^8). The activities for girls depicted in Minnie's Play- 
room; or, Hotv to Practice Calisthenics were equally strenuous, rivaling 
present-day aerobics. And although Lilla Elizabeth Kelley's Three 
Hundred Things a Bright Girl Can Do has instructions on such traditional 
activities as rugmaking, needlework, and paper-flower making, it also 
contains lessons in wood carving, taxidermy, and the law. Such publica- 


Fig. 38. "Fives." From A Little Pretty 
Pocket-Book, Intended for the Instruc- 
tion and Amusement of Little Master 
Tommy and Pretty Miss Polly (Worces- 
ter, Mass.: Isaiah Thomas, 1787), p. 
46. Page: H. i Vs", w. iVs". 

Four boys are shown here playing fives, a 
game in which the players alternately hit a 
ball against a wall with their hands instead of 
a racket. 


tions are more reliable sources of information about how children actually 
spent their leisure time than works such as Little Fanny, which project an 
adult view of idealized children. 

What did children actually think of the toys, books, and games that 
scholars study as clues to the lives of children in earlier ages? Possibly 
such artifacts survive because they were the most widely available. On the 
other hand, they may have survived because they were so unpopular and, 
consequently, so unused that they remained in the bottom of a toy box or 
the top of a shelf. Such conundrums will continue to absorb researchers 
who must consider all kinds of materials to appreciate fully how child- 
hood was experienced. 


Neville Thompson 

Courtesy and Etiquette 

In the ordinary course of daily life, few people think of stopping to consult 
an etiquette book on any but the most ceremonial of occasions, but arbi- 
ters of personal behavior have dispensed advice at least since written liter- 
ature first appeared. Over the centuries, such compendia evolved and mu- 
tated into the etiquette books of today. While such manuals are prescrip- 
tive rather than descriptive, they offer enough clues to contemporary be- 
havior to constitute a rich source of information about the rituals and 
routines of everyday life in the past and of the values and standards they 

Courtesy books are the immediate predecessors of etiquette books of 
the last 1 50 years. Through the end of the eighteenth century, courtesy 
books codified the qualities and standards gentlemen and gentlewomen 
should possess and inculcated these standards by applying them to tasks 
and situations in daily life. Few genres contain less truly original thought, 
and few cannibaHze each other more over the centuries. Generally, cour- 
tesy books summarized already accepted rules of behavior that had origi- 
nated at court or at the great houses of the nobility. While most such 
books, especially those written for women, pay dutiful attention to Chris- 
tian virtues, some cynical authors — most famously Machiavelli and Lord 
Chesterfield — stressed the appearance rather than the attainment of virtue. 
One work of this ilk in Winterthur Library is Baltazar Gracian y Morales's 
Courtiers Manual Oracle, a 1685 London translation of a Spanish origi- 
nal, which proffers such advice as finding out "the weak side of every 

In the early nineteenth centur>', the appearance of newly monied mid- 
dle classes sprung from obscure backgrounds led to the replacement of 
the courtesy book by the manual of "etiquette," a word first used in its 
modern sense, appropriately enough, in a 1750 letter of Lord Chester- 
field's. Unlike courtesy books, etiquette manuals aimed at quick results. 
Since authors of such treatises could not assume that their readers had 
genteel backgrounds— indeed, they quite often came from the lower social 
orders— etiquette authors became increasingly dictatorial in their direc- 
tives, often emphasizing their authority and social standing by signing 
their works with real or bogus titles and descriptions. Unsurprisingly, rules 


Fig. 39. "Walking and saluting passing 
by." From F. Nivelon, The Rudiments 
of Genteel Behavior ([London?], 1737), 
pi. z. Page: H. 11", w. 8V2". 

Nivelon's manual assumes that for both men 
and women, body language is as eloquent as 
speech. For those wishing to appear truly 
genteel, Nivelon rigidly prescribes and illus- 
trates correct methods for standing, walking, 
and dancing. 

/■''?■'...,./.■, y./^ 'X'..:-.^ 

/■.v y-/:,r/,.,„ 

for the minutiae of outward behavior charaaerize the etiquette book of 
the nineteenth century. 

The Hbrary's extensive holdings of courtesy and etiquette publications 
include copies of the most popular seventeenth-century English courtesy 
books, works known to have been owned in this country, even though 
little scope could have been afforded to much of their advice. Few men in 
the colonies would have had the time to attain such gentlemanly accom- 
plishments recommended by Henry Peacham in the Compleat Gentleman 
as "Painting and drawing in Oyl" and hawking. Like those for men, En- 
glish courtesy books written for women, such as Richard Allestree's Ladies 
Calling and William Kenrick's Whole Duty of a Woman, were popular 
here. A particularly appealing courtesy book for women is Richard 
Brathwaite's English Gentleivoman. In a chapter entitled "Reproof Touch- 
ing Apparell," Brathwaite cautions his readers to avoid "Sumptuousnesse, 
Softnesse, Strangenesse, and Superfluousnesse," adding that "Gentility is 


not known by what we weare, but what we are," a sentiment echoed by 
many advice books ever since. Most courtesy books for women, hke 
Brathwaite's, emphasized modesty, meekness, and Christian virtues as the 
most desirable female qualities. An unusual courtesy book for the period 
was Sir John Barnard's Present for jii Apprentice (1642), a practical com- 
pendium of advice for aspiring merchants that was so realistic in its ap- 
proach to mercantile success that it was reprinted in Philadelphia as late 
as 1774. 

Striking visual evidence of high eighteenth-century manners appears 
in F. Nivelon's handsome Rudiments of Genteel Behavior, which illus- 
trates the correct posture for walking, dancing, and greeting others (fig. 
39). Nivelon's advice is echoed in a Boston pubHcation called A Guide to 
Politeness by dancing master Francis D. Nichols, whose charming illustra- 
tions of ballroom manners recall those of the earlier volume (fig. 40). 

An important and enduring strain of advice literature took the form 
of counsel from a real or putative parent to his or her children. An exam- 
ple in Winterthur's collection is Isaac Taylor's Advice to the Teens, Taylor 
surely being among the first to use the word teens. The library's copies of 
two similar works, John Gregory's Father's Legacy to His Daughters and 
Mrs. Peddle's Rudiments of Taste . . . from a Mother to Her Daughters, 
both reprinted in Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, in the late eighteenth cen- 
tury, have been bound together by a later owner with a sense of humor. 
Bound with them is a late nineteenth-century advertising pamphlet for the 
popular theatrical pot-boiler Only a Farmer's Daughter. 

The problem of defining a truly American etiquette, an issue raised 

Fig. 40. "Come, and trip it as you go, 
On the light fantastic toe." From 
Francis D. Nichols, A Guide to Polite- 
ness; or, A System of Directions for the 
Acquirement of Ease. Propriety, and 
Elegance of Manners . . . (Boston: Lin- 
coln and Edmands, 18 10), frontispiece. 
Page: H. 6%", w. 4". 

The charming illustrations in this volume on 
ballroom etiquette by an "Instructor of 
dancing in Boston" reflect the demise of 
Puritan influence on social customs by 1810. 

Ch/nr. (ind trip it as y(^j.go: O/i (fee fi^At /anfastic ioe. " | 


early in the nineteenth century, produced such works as expurgated and 
Americanized versions of Lord Chesterfield; E. Cooley's manual of the 
etiquette observed in Washington, our national court; and Charles Butler's 
American Lady and American Gentleman in 1836. Butler's epitome of 
gentility was, not surprisingly, George Washington. However, reprints of 
popular English titles continued to appear, such as the charming Mirror 
of the Graces, which contains the first colored fashion plates found in an 
American publication, and Edward Caswall's amusing Sketches of Young 
Ladies and Young Gentlemen, which pokes fun at ill behavior in both its 
text and its illustrations. Such humor, however, was rare in the nineteenth 
century, for readers of etiquette manuals were entering an age of anxiety, 
although writers of these works were entering an age of opportunity. For 
their financially comfortable but socially untutored audience, publishers 
issued such titles as the Countess of Calabrella's Ladies' Science of 
Etiquette and Samuel R. Wells's How to Behave, both inexpensive publi- 
cations aimed at a mass audience. Toward the end of the century, Florence 
Marion Hall's Correct Thing in Good Society simply tabulated dos and 
don'ts on facing pages. According to Hall, it is correct to use a colored 
cloth for luncheon tables; it is not correct to use such a cloth for dinner. 
An 1 891 publication by "Censor" titled Don't simplified etiquette by 
hsting only behaviors to avoid. Some of Censor's advice is quite sensible. 
Censor's recommendations not to use endearments insincerely or to bor- 
row books without returning them are as valuable today as they were 
when first penned. However, the caution against wearing diamonds in the 
daytime is less applicable to readers now than it was for the audience for 
whom it was written. 

Although the rules set forth in the courtesy and etiquette manuals of 
earlier ages at times appear impossibly complex to modern, more relaxed 
audiences, some advice still holds. Today's readers would do well to re- 
member Wells's counsel that although the forms for expressing politeness 
vary with time and place, politeness itself "is always the same." 


Neville Thompson 

Pleasure and Ceremony 

Paradoxically, the very process of studying past lives can distance re- 
searchers from them by reducing their complex texture to bald, cheerless 
facts about long working hours, primitive household chores, and incessant 
toil. However, a large body of evidence suggests that people have always 
found ways to enjoy themselves and to mark important events in their 
lives with formal and often moving ceremonies and rituals. 

People of the past played amateur sports and attended professional 
matches. They hunted and fished. They danced, made music themselves, 
and listened with enjoyment to the music of others. They traveled and 
brought back from those travels an amazing range of souvenirs, from 
papier-mache boxes to the Elgin marbles. They painted, embroidered, and 
made fancywork for bazaars. At home in the evenings, families played 
charades, chess, and paper games and told stories. They kept scrapbooks, 
wrote poetry, tended pets, and planted indoor gardens. They joined 
societies of all kinds and founded others, and in the nineteenth century, as 
the leisured middle class grew, they did all these things with even greater 
fervor. In large and small groups, they performed memorable rituals rang- 
ing from the solemn to the ridiculous, which they then chronicled in let- 
ters, diaries, magazine articles, how-to-do-it books, sketches, postcards, 
and stereopticon views. Winterthur Library is rich in this evidence, so rich 
that only a small sampling can be included here. 

Certainly one of the grandest of the library's volumes commemorat- 
ing a special occasion is Thomas Jean Pichon's Sacre et couronnenient de 
Louis XVI, a fete book recording the costumes and ceremonies prescribed 
for the ill-fated king's coronation at Reims. In its luxurious binding, hand- 
some printing, fine paper, and splendid illustrations, the book is precisely 
evocative of its era and totally unaware of its approaching and violent 
end. More democratic rites, although in an equally splendid setting, were 
performed in the New Masonic Temple of Philadelphia, dedicated in 
1875. The volume issued by the lodge's Ubrary committee for the occasion 
is unusual for its tipped-in illustrations, which are photographs of the 
building's exotic interiors and imposing exterior. An even earlier photo- 
graphically illustrated book was issued by Charles J. Stille as a catalogue 
of the Great Central Sanitary Fair in Philadelphia in 1864, a bazaar staged 



Guili'oi-d.NottingluunA'm-k. Lincoln ^*f^art>Vevi»«rkelV'^-^ 
(>f^. //tr t' Affirm fi W/f/M i'tttei^fi^iS\^affait*tf /Ar3>iiA* f^ 
-JCn^fwnf U^f/'if % -G*^ 1 1 Ht/<a at Xenimii-liei 300 t/Kirnti^. 

Fig. 41. "The Portraiture of Con- 
queror." From James Roberts, The 
Sportsman's Pocket Companion ([Lon- 
don: Henry Roberts, 1760?]), leaf 17. 
Page: H. SVs", w. 5 Vi". 

An eighteenth-century Who's Who of notable 
racehorses, and not, incidentally, of their 
titled owners, this handsome volume is 
engraved throughout. At the foot of each 
page, the engraver has added engaging vi- 
gnettes of the horse's everyday life. 

to benefit the Union forces. The book's photographs reveal the great scale 
of the fair and, more intimately, the massive and elaborate silver Union 
Vase contributed by Philadelphia jewelers Bailey and Company for the 
occasion. Equally splendid are the color illustrations of the religious cere- 
monies of the Mandan Indians recorded by George Catlin, an explorer 
and painter of the native Americans of the West. Another of the library's 
impressive volumes concerning grand ceremonies is George D. Carroll's 
Art of Dinner Giving. A disguised trade catalogue for Dempsey and Car- 
roll, a stationery firm that catered to high society, the volume reverently 
furnishes, in minute detail, guest lists, menus, and table decorations for 
some of the most excessive entertainments of the Gilded Age, including 
banquets for General Grant and the "elegant Private Dinner" staged by 
Mrs. D. H. McAIpin of Fifth Avenue to welcome Cleopatra's Needle to 
New York City. At McAlpin's party, the menus folded into hieroglyph- 
covered obelisks. The selection of foods served at the party, however, is 
disappointingly unimaginative, considering the opportunity. Only "Punch 
Cleopatra" suggests an Egyptian touch. 

On less spectacular occasions than those described above, Americans 
sought pleasure and amusement from various sources. Both in public and 
in private, music and dance have always been sources of pleasure. A rare 
early Philadelphia imprint edited by John Aitken called the Scots Musical 
Museum is a collection of folk songs for home musicians, such as the 
young lady playing a pianoforte in the advertising broadside of piano- 
maker George E. Blake. As early as 1817, a French "Professor of 
Dancing" in Philadelphia named J. H. Gourdoux-Doux published his 
Elements and Principles of the Art of Dancing, a forerunner of many 
guides to the increasingly complex etiquette and dance figures of the day. 
Later in the century, as balls became more elaborate, fancy dress parties 
were the rage. A manual by Ardern Holt illustrates hundreds of costumes 
for the unimaginative, ranging from the "Hornet" to Mary, queen of 
Scots. Nightlife of a riskier sort is described in Hints to Men about Town 
by "a Sporting Surgeon," a guide for Regency dandies to London's seamy 
side. By day, English gentlemen cherished racehorses, as James Roberts's 
beautifully engraved Sportsman's Pocket Companion of 1760 testifies 
(fig. 41). 

Women, meanwhile, had amusements of a safer nature. Needlework 
and all sorts of crafts proliferated, as surviving manuals of handicraft 
attest. Forgotten skills — skeletonizing leaves, painting on velvet, and mak- 
ing hair jewelry— all had their practitioners, and many women compiled 
their handiwork in scrapbooks and albums. Scrapbooks in the library's 
collections contain, among other things, greeting cards, fabric swatches, 
and an entire imaginary house interior assembled from paper ephemera. 


Fig. 42. "The Swing." From Mile. St.- 
Semin, Healthful Sports for Young 
Ladies (London: R. Ackermann, 
[1812]), facing p. I. Page: h. 5", w. 


This picture book is typical of the appealing 
early nineteenth-century color-plate publica- 
tions issued by Rudolph Ackermann. The 
young ladies" spon seems to be more pictur- 
esque than strenuous. 

Fig. 43. "Coasting Backwards — Sining 
Side-Saddle on Top Stay." From Isabel 
Marks, Fancy Cycling for Amateurs 
(London: Sands, 1901), p. 33. Page:H. 

7V2", w. $¥»". 

Bicycling became a craze diuring the later 
years of the nineteenth century. As this illus- 
tration demonstrates, daredevils were not 
content with simply remaining upright and in 

As Mile. St.-Sernin's Healthful Sports for Young Ladies records, women 
in the early nineteenth century took up outdoor sports with great zeal (fig. 
42). The anonymous Archer's Guide, R. Fellow's Game of Croquet, and 
Isabel Marks's Fancy Cycling (fig. 43) all taught sports that women as well 
as men could enjoy, and a member of a famous New England sporting- 
goods manufacturing firm, Mary Orvis Marbury, compiled a sumptuously 
illustrated volume about fly-fishing. Favorite Flies and Their Histories 
(pi. II). 

Family amusements included card games, charades, and board games, 
some of which — namely, Parcheesi, Authors, and Jackstraws — appeared 
in the 1872 Milton Bradley Company catalogue. Together, families looked 
at the world through that photographic wonder, the stereopticon, as the 
library's instrument and slides attest. Other family-centered amusements, 
such as those celebrating traditional American holidays, are reflected in 
the library's delightful profusion of nineteenth-century greeting cards in 
the Thelma Seeds Mendsen Collection, which depict everything from St. 
Patrick's Day elves to tonsured Santa Clauses in monks' robes. In the sec- 
ond half of the nineteenth century especially, Americans amused them- 
selves by collecting nature specimens such as birds' eggs, pressed flowers, 
ferns, and mushrooms. Leaf and Floiver Pictures and Hoiu to Make Them 
is just one of many works on the subject of collecting and working natural 
objects to decorate the home. The very well off, however, such as art col- 
lector W. H. Aspinwall whose painting galleries are described in a pri- 
vately printed guide presented to H. F. du Pont's father, were as likely to 
collect art for enjoyment as to amass natural wonders. 


Fig. 44. "The Egyptian." From 
James W. Tufts [Company], Descriptive 
Catalogue of James W. Tufts' Arctic 
Soda-water Apparatus (Boston, 1876), 
pi. facing p. 46. Page: h. ^Vs", w. 6716". 

Even utilitarian machiner)- wore historic 
clothing in the nineteenth century-, and since 
the soda fountain had no specific historic 
precedent, it was free to be designed in any 
style that appealed to its manufacturer. Some 
examples in the Tufts catalogue are Gothic, 
while others remain uniquely his own. 



Yet other entertainments, such as parades, circuses, and fireworks, 
were enjoyed by the public en masse. Amedee Francois Frezier's Traite 
des jeux d'artifice published in 1747 testifies to the long popularity of 
fireworks, just as Adam Forepaugh's Catalogue of Living Wonders does 
to the perennial appeal of the circus. Forepaugh's show, which featured 
"300 animals and birds" and "345 men and horses," must have made a 
brief sensation when it hit town. A more routinely accessible marvel of 
pleasure was soda fountains, which often received exotic treatments in 
the nineteenth century. Notable examples appear in an illustrated cata- 
logue of the James W. Tufts company of Boston (fig. 44). 

The volumes mentioned above reflect only a few of the many formal 
and informal pleasures of the past described in the library's collections. 
But all testify eloquently to the energy, curiosity, and self-reliance with 
which Americans pursued enjoyment and through which they recorded 
special occasions for posterity. 


Neville Thompson 

Cookbooks and Manuals of 
Domestic Economy 


34 Le bon ufage da Thit 

ff'^^/iijuri' ,C^, 



^cts a, yreparer Le Ik/. 

Fig. 45. "Pots a preparer le The." From 
Nicolas de Blegny, Le bon usage dti the, 
du caffe et dit chocolat pour la preserva- 
tion et pour la guerison des maladies 
(Lyon: Thomas Amaulry, 1687), p. 34. 
Page: H. sVa", w. 3'/s". 

Coffee, tea, and chocolate were novelties 
when Blegny's book appeared. Blegny at- 
tempted to reassure drinkers about the bever- 
ages' medicinal values, instrua cooks in 
methods of brewing these drinks, and inform 
housewives about the correa implements and 
utensils for service, as in the teapots illustrated 
in this plate. 

Cookbooks speak a universal language. Few subjeas are as immediately 
accessible as food— our own, or other people's — and through the years 
many of us have amassed recipes ranging from the tried-and-true to ex- 
travagant pipe dreams. There have always been such assemblages. In Win- 
terthur's collections we find, for instance, the manuscript cookbook of 
Hannah Huthwaite (171 2) and E. Smith's Compleat Housewife (1742), 
the first cookbook published in America. Winterthur's copy of The Com- 
pleat Houseivife is especially appealing since it is inscribed and dated by 
Jane Williams, its first owner, who purchased it in Williamsburg in 1743. 
The first printed cookbooks in both Europe and America record the food 
of the very well-to-do, although some recipes in these works reappear in 
various forms for centuries. A related genre is the receipt book, used both 
in the home and in the workplace. Predecessors of the domestic encyclo- 
pedia, receipt books contain recipes for cooking as well as for household 
products such as medicines, shellacs, and pesticides. Cookbooks and man- 
uals of domestic economy provide valuable information about members 
of various classes in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, their values 
and preoccupations. Nicholas Blegny's Bon usage du the (1687), for ex- 
ample, reveals fashionable society's fondness for the new drinks of coffee, 
tea, and chocolate and its interest in health by mingling remarks on 
methods for preparing the beverages with commentary on their medicinal 
value (fig. 45). Aimed at a similarly elegant section of society, Hannah 
Robertson's Young Ladies School of Arts indicates the interest of genteel 
housewives in the processes of shellworking and japanning, the concoction 
of cosmetics and jams, and the breeding of canary birds. Gervase Mark- 
ham's Countrey Contentments and Madame Johnson's "instructions for 
young women," on the other hand, are more explicit about the hardships 
of housewifery. According to Markham, among the daunting responsi- 
bilities allotted to housewives are cooking, physic, surgery, brewing, bak- 
ing, and spinning. Johnson, whose budget for a family in the "middling 
station in life" provides five pounds for lying-in "once in every two years," 
describes certain aspects of cooking in a no-nonsense style appropriate for 
such hard labor: "Dismember that heron . . . String that lamprey . . . splat 
that pike." Whatever one's station in the seventeenth and eighteenth cen- 


Fig. 46. Title page. Trials and Confes- 
sions of an American Housekeeper 
(Philadelphia: Lippmcott, Grambo, 
1854). Page (trimmed): H. 6yi6", w. 

Many nineteenth-century writers on domestic 
economy assumed an approach that was 
reassuring rather than dictatorial, couching 
their advice in iictional form in order to share 
common adversities of daily Ufe— some of 
which are illustrated here. 

turies, cookbooks and receipt books reveal that meals were generally 
monotonous. Although Charles Carter's Complete Practical Cook an- 
nounces that Carter was "lately cook to his Grace the Duke of Argyll," 
Carter's recipe for "cucumbers fryed" and his enthusiasm for "the boiling 
part" of cookery hardly make his cuisine appealing today. As the bills of 
fare and methods of preservation in The Lady's Companiotj indicate, En- 
glish and colonial American diets were characterized by a preponderance 
of meat and baked goods, despite such tempting offerings as gilliflower 
wine. Another century would elapse before fruit and vegetables began to 
assume their present importance, encouraged by developments in commer- 
cial distribution and preservation technology. 

The profound social and technological changes that occurred during 
the nineteenth century are mirrored in the increasing number of cook- 
books and manuals of domestic economy that appeared then. Urbaniza- 
tion broke up rural extended households and placed many inexperienced 
wives in cities without mentors other than books. Technology not only 
made possible altered ways of arranging households and carrying out 
tasks but also fostered the spread of household literature. Paradoxically, 
the ability to produce more books less expensively for a growing reading 
public encouraged publication of both more encyclopedic household man- 
uals and more specialized ones. The range of the very popular Inquire 
Within for Anything You Want to Know is only barely indicated by four 
adjacent lines from its index: "Friends, Choice of them; Fritters, Batter 
for; From, or of ?; Frost-bite, Treatment of." At the same time, works 
such as Practical Vegetarian Cookery, William Alcott's Young House- 
keeper, C. A. Neal's Total Abstinence Cookery, and Lafcadio Hearn's 
Cuisine creole focus on very specific aspects of domestic life. New direc- 
tions are indicated in Trials and Confessions of an American Housekeeper, 
which cloaks its advice in the accessible form of a housewife's musings 
(fig. 46). In addition, many works in this period — for example, Mary Vir- 
ginia Terhune's Eve's Daughters, written under the pseudonym Marion 
Harland— combine domestic instruction with discussions of women's role 
in society. Nevertheless, volumes reflecting traditional attitudes about 
women and housework continued to find an audience, such as Alexander 
Murray's Domestic Oracle. 

Winterthur's collection of nineteenth-century domestic treatises is 
especially impressive. Most influential writers on domestic economy are 
represented, including Sarah Josepha Hale, editor of Godey's from 1 84 1 
to 1877; Sarah Tyson Rorer, a cooking-school proprietor and author of 
Home Games and Parties as well as How to Set the Table; Mrs. D. A. 
Lincoln, another cooking-school proprietor who wrote Mrs. Lincoln's 
Boston Cook Book; and "American Orphan" Amelia Simmons, the first 


Fig. 47. "Centre Dish — Le Coq Gallant 
(a votre service)." From Theodore Fran- 
cis Garrett, The Encyclopaedia of Practi- 
cal Cookery: A Complete Dictionary of 
All Pertaining to the Art of Cookery 
and Table Service, vol. 7 (Philadelphia: 
Hudson Importing Co.; [London: 
A. Bradley], [1898?]), facing p. 51Z. 
Page: H. 11", W. SVte". 

Advances in the technolog>- of color printing 
made possible this e.vtravagant compendium 
of nmeteenth-centur)' cookery and table 

native-born author of an American cookbook and seemingly the first to 
use cornmeal and cranberries in her cooking. The library collections also 
amply represent the gamut of cookbooks in the period from the insistently 
frugal to the extravagant. The dazzling color illustrations of Theodore 
Francis Garrett's Encyclopaedia of Practical Cookery, which features the 
creations of chef Francatelli, pupil of the great Careme and cook to Queen 
Victoria, demonstrate the heights to which Francatelli's influence could 
lead and belie the word practical in the volume's title (fig. 47). 

As the century wore on, such major figures as Catharine Beecher, in 
her many publications, advocated greater system and order in the house- 
wife's approach to her work, a demand that culminated in the "scientific 
household engineering" of the early twentieth century. Beecher, however, 
who believed the housewife a secular goddess and the inspiration of her 
household, might well have been confounded by the forthright sentiments 
of Christine Frederick, author of Household Engineering, who stated that 
before she discovered the scientific manner of handling household tasks, 


their repetitive drudgery made her long for the world of work she had 
given up for housewifery. 

Whatever the century and whoever the author, cookbooks, receipt 
books, and manuals of domestic economy are primary tools for under- 
standing the routines and objects of everyday life, especially their intended 
appearance, use, and care, as well as the value that their owners placed on 
them. They also record changes in daily life brought about by urbaniza- 
tion and technological innovation and the corresponding change in the 
housewife's role and view of her role. Above all, because they concern 
those ordinary matters that engage us still, they appeal directly to today's 


E. Richard McKinstry 

The Shakers 

Fig. 48. William F. Winter, Shaker 
furniture, ca. 1936. Photograph; H. 
9 1/2", w. y'/z". 

This photograph first appeared as plate 1 6 in 
Edward Deming and Faith Andrews's Shaker 
Furniture: The Craftsrttanship of an American 
Communal Sect. By the time the Andrewses* 
book came out in 1917, Winter had been 
photographing Shakers and their goods for 
nearly a decade. Winter's early death in 1939 
at the age of forty robbed modern obser%ers 
of additional insightful piaorial representa- 
tions of the Shakers. The kind of round table 
pictured here was commonly built for sisters' 
and brothers' retiring rooms, while the four- 
slat rocker made in 180 1 forecasts a style of 
Shaker furniture known to us today. Shaker 
men routinely used wooden spit boxes of the 
type seen here, which were filled with either 
sawdust or shavmgs. 

Unlike many religious sects that appear only to vanish quickly or become 
part of the mainstream, the United Societ)' of Believers in Christ's Second 
Appearing (the Shakers' official title) has successfully separated itself from 
the rest of the world since its beginnings in the mid eighteenth century. 
During this time, the sect's membership has numbered anywhere from a 
handful to thousands and has included men and women from all walks of 
life, mechanics and intellectuals alike. While the living movement is near- 
ing an end, the history of the Shakers will remain with us forever, in part 
because of their artifacts. In addition to providing succeeding generations 
with a reminder of the Shakers, these artifaas offer historians a legacy 
that religious offshoots seldom bestow: a coherent expression of their 
spiritual values through material culture. In calling one of his books Reli- 
gion in Wood, noted Shaker scholar Edward Deming Andrews recognized 
the relation of artifact to spiritual life in Shaker communities. As theolo- 
gian Thomas Merton wrote in the introduction to Andrews's book, "The 
peculiar grace of a Shaker chair is due to the fact that it was made by 
someone capable of believing that an angel might come and sit on it. In- 
deed the Shakers believed their furniture was designed by angels." Fortu- 
nately, Andrews preser\ed images of Shaker furniture and other artifacts 
in his books through the photography of William F. Winter, whose work 
stands out for its welcome understanding of Shaker crafts (fig. 48). 

Winterthur Library is extremely fortunate in having the extensive 
Shaker collection gathered by Andrews and his wife. Faith, who first be- 
came acquainted with the Shakers in 1923 at Hancock, Massachusetts. 
In their memoirs, Fruits of the Shaker Tree of Life, they recorded their 
first and subsequent encounters with the Shakers. During the course of 
time, the couple earned the trust and respea of the Shakers and were 
given countless gifts of Shaker imprints, manuscripts, photographs, and 
what we now call ephemera. After serving as primary resources for their 
many books, articles, and lectures, these materials were donated to Win- 
terthur Library and formally dedicated in 1969 as the Edward Deming 
Andrews Memorial Shaker Collection. In 1987, a guide to its contents 
was published. 

The materials in the Andrews CoUection mirror the rise, progress, 


Fig. 49. Second Family, Mount Leba- 
non, New York, ca. 1865-75. Stereo- 
graph; H. 3%", w. 7". 

The Shaker village in this view deserves the 
accolades bestowed on Shaker communities 
by Robert Wickliff in a speech before the 
Kentucky- state senate m 1881: "In architec- 
ture and neatness they [the Shakers] are 
exceeded by no people upon the earth. Their 
villages and towns bear testimony everywhere 
of their skill in the mechanic and manufactur- 
ing arts. The whole society live in unexampled 
nearness, if not elegance— not a pauper 
among them— all alike independent. . . . Who 
has visited one of the Shaker villages, that has 
not experienced emotions of delight at the 
peaceful!, harmonious, but industnous move- 
ments of the villagers'" (quoted in The Shak- 
ers: Life and Production of a Community in 
the Pioneering Days of America, an Exhibi- 
tion by the "Neue Sammlung, " Munich 
[Munich: Staatliches Museum fiir angewandte 
Kunst, 1974], p. 65). 

and decline of the Shaker movement from the late eighteenth to the late 
twentieth centun*. To become a Shaker, a prospective member had to sign 
a covenant in which he or she vowed to observe the tenets of the sea. The 
first covenant came from the New Lebanon (formerly Mount Lebanon), 
New York, communit\' in 1795 ^^i*^ ^^'•^s revised through the next century 
to reflect changes in Shaker doarine. Quite possibly persons considering 
membership in the society in the 1 790s learned something about it from 
the first Shaker publication, Joseph Meacham's Concise Statement of the 
Principles of the Only True Church According to the Gospel, pulled from 
the Bennington, Vermont, press of Haswell and Russell in 1790. 

Once in the society, members often recorded their routines and spec- 
ial concerns in manuscript diaries and letters. While some diaries in the 
Andrews Collection lack attribution, many name their keepers on a front 
leaf. The entries of Benjamin Gates, a New Lebanon resident, reveal the 
multitude of tasks that a t>'pical Shaker brother was expected to perform, 
while the 1805 diary of Benjamin Seth Youngs relates an extraordinary 
trip that he and two others took to tr\^ to establish the society in the West. 
Relations among Shaker communities, especially in the West, are brought 
to life in more than 100 letters that comment on the uncertainties of wil- 
derness existence and the perceived unsupportiveness of the home ministry 
at New Lebanon. 


Other materials in the Andrews CoUeaion concern the early forceful 
leader of the Shakers, Ann Lee. When Mother Ann died in 1784, nearly 
every Shaker immediately thereafter relied on the memories of Lee's con- 
temporaries for details about her teachings. As more time passed, it be- 
came increasingly difficult to maintain the order without its charismatic 
leader or these personal memories. Lee's teachings and counsel were 
passed on, however, through spirit messages, which are communications 
the spirit of Lee sent to followers who then committed them to paper. 
Such messages in Winterthur Library are Rufus Bishop's "Words of a 
Shining Roll Sent from Holy Mother Wisdom to Brother Rufus Bishop, 
July loth, 1842," and Mary Hazard's sketch of hearts on pages 191 and 
192 of her hymnbook. 

In addition to documenting the Shakers through the written word 
and drawings, the Andrews Collection offers researchers opportunities to 
study the Shakers through approximately 1,400 illustrated items, includ- 
ing prints, watercolors, postcards, stereo views, daguerreotypes, labels, 
and photographs. A stereo view of a Shaker village in New Lebanon tes- 
tifies to the orderliness of Shaker life (fig. 49), while a seed advertisement 
from the same community bespeaks the Shakers' horticultural success (fig. 
50). A photograph of members of the New Lebanon community prepar- 
ing to dine suggests something of the social relations of the group (fig. 
51). No doubt, Anthony Imbert's delicately colored lithograph depicting 
the "square order shuffle," a Shaker dance, is the most famous image in 
the Andrews Collection. However, Joshua Bussell's watercolor views of 
Shaker villages are the most original as they reflect the work of mid 
nineteenth-century folk artists so well (pi. 12). The library's collection of 
photographs, which show at least fifteen Shaker communities, for the 
most part spans a fifty-year period beginning around 1880. Interspersed 

Fig. 50. Shakers' Genuine Vegetable & 
Flower Seeds, from Mount Lebanon, 
Columbia County, N.Y., [ca. iSoos]. 
Advertisement; H. ii'A", w. 13". 

According to an account book, Shakers at the 
New Lebanon community first systematically 
grew seeds to sell m 1 795. At first, sales were 
limited to the local area, but as time passed, 
the "Shaker seed wagon" found receptive 
buyers in all parts of the country as well as in 


Fig. 51. North Family, Mount Lebanon, 
New York, ca. 1890. Photograph; H. 
4y4", w. y-Vi". 

The Shakers were well known for their 
excellent food. Because of the sect's reliance 
on hard work in its fields and manufactories, 
members had to be provided with substantial 
amounts of nourishing food. In this photo- 
graph, the sisters of the North Family at the 
New Lebanon community are preparing the 
long tables for a meal. 

among photographs of individual communities are several series of pic- 
tures that show what the Shakers looked like and how they lived. A set of 
3 2 stereographs entitled Photographic Views, Shaker Village, Canterbury, 
New Hampshire, by W. G. C. Kimball of nearby Concord, is representa- 
tive of such assemblages. 

Historians and observers of the Shaker movement started writing in 
the eighteenth century and have not stopped yet. Among the best known 
non-Shaker works are New America by William Hepworth Dixon, Les 
Shakers Americains by Henri Desroche, American Communities by Wil- 
liam Alfred Hinds, Three Villages by William Dean Howells, and History 
of American Socialisms by John Humphrey Noyes. The most prohfic 
writer that the Shakers can claim for themselves is Frederick William 
Evans whose works are represented by 8 3 imprints in the Andrews Collec- 
tion. His Tests of Divine Inspiration, Shakers: Compendium of the Origin, 
History, Principles, Rules, and Regulations, and autobiography all contain 
a wealth of information about Shaker religious thought and practices. 
Not every author wrote in glowing terms about the Shakers, however. 
Three individuals who at one time resided with them, Thomas Brown, 
Eunice Hawley Chapman, and Valentine Rathbun, pubHshed exceedingly 
hostile accounts about their sojourns with the society. 

One reason why some researchers study the Shakers is that the 
Shakers' detachment from worldly concerns makes them easy to under- 
stand as a group, while their varied activities and talents provide a number 
of ways to inquire into their collective life-style. The material in the 
Edward Deming Andrews Memorial Shaker Collection reflects the 
paradox of the Shakers' homogeneity and diversity. 


E. Richard McKinstry 


Printed and manuscript advertisements have existed ever since craftsmen 
realized that it was advantageous to promote themseh'es and their mer- 
chandise, hi the world of eighteenth-century craftsmen, for example, a 
furniture maker might paste a rudimentary label or chalk his initials inside 
a piece to show the pubUc the kind of work that might be expected from 
him. By recording his name on a product, the craftsman enhanced his 
reputation, indicated to retailers what he could supply, and at least implied 
to buyers that he would stand behind his work. Broadening the range of 
their promotions a bit further, craftsmen began placing advertisements in 
newspapers or city directories, noting their addresses and detailing their 
products, sometimes with illustrations. In addition to containing such 
simple advertisements, Winterthur Lihrar\' houses colorful manuscript 
catalogues, printed trade catalogues, trade cards and labels, and billheads 
with illustrations and descriptions of products. 

Among the most informative rv'pes of advertising literature to re- 
searchers is the trade catalogue. Strictly defined, trade catalogues are 
printed books, pamphlets, or broadsides issued by a maker so retailers 
could order merchandise for their stores' shelves. In practice, however, 
"trade catalogue" has come to mean just about any piece of promotional 
hterature that describes a product. Benjamin Franklin is acknowledged to 
have issued the first printed American trade catalogues in 1744. 

An outstanding manuscript catalogue that has survived into the twen- 
tieth century is a multivolume work compiled by an unnamed vendor in 
early nineteenth-century France (pi. 13). A splendid pictorial encyclopedia 
of middle-class products of the Napoleonic era, this catalogue's nearly 
1,600 watercolors show a broad range of household products, personal 
goods, and miscellanea such as Argand lamps, gloves, tobacco boxes, 
scent bottles, dog collars, pistols, and toys. Even though these volumes 
originated in continental Europe, their contents were undoubtedly ex- 
ported to and marketed in the United States. In fact, Lewis Page, a toy 
dealer from New York, is known to have ordered items from Europe just 
like the ones presented in this anonymous French catalogue. 

Although the French catalogue is the hbrary's most splendid, it is far 
from being its earUest. Dated 1760, the earUest American catalogue in the 


Fig. 52. Teapot. From Benjamin Hadley, 
[Catalogue] (Birmingham, Eng., [ca. 
1815]), no. 944. Page: H. loVi", w. 17". 

Hadley's catalogue includes plated ware and 
glass goods such as candlesticks, bottles, 
pitchers, trays, teapots, coffee urns, and sugar 
baskets. Even though this catalogue depicts 
English goods, such items were routinely 
available in the United States through an 
active network of trade. Handwritten notes 
in French on some leaves suggest that Hadley 
also had business interests in France. While 
the quality of the contents and condition of 
the plates make this catalogue important in 
trade literature, it is also significant because 
the manufacturer whose wares it illustrates 
can be identified. Very few late seventeenth- 
and early eighteenth-century catalogues can 
be linked to specific makers. 

collection is from James Rivington, a Loyalist printer and bookseller who 
had just opened his shop in New York. The contents of its sixty-four 
pages indicate that a wide variety of books lately imported by Rivington 
was available. Other eighteenth-century catalogues at Winterthur, chiefly 
from England, represent a wide range of products, including hardware, 
silver articles, tableware, and tools. Unfortunately, the great majority of 
them lack attribution. Chief among the exceptions are the catalogues from 
the brass foundries of John Barker and Jee, Eginton, and Company; the 
silversmithing firms of Love, Silverside, Darby, and Company and 
Younge, Greaves, and Hoyland; toolmakers John Wycke and William 
and Samuel Butcher; and lampmaker John Miles. The products of these 
and other foreign craftsmen were regularly shipped to America. 

During the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, trade cata- 
logues grew in importance as American commerce expanded and printers 
began using chromolithography and photography. These developments 
spurred an explosion of catalogues for all kinds of products, from agricul- 
tural implements to food, from plumbing equipment to personal provi- 
sions. The library's collection, which is described in Trade Catalogues at 
Winterthur, emphasizes products associated with the home and items 
used by the people who lived in these homes. Glassware, ceramics, art 
supplies, wallpaper, silverware, paint, stoves, clothing, and statuary are all 
represented by trade catalogues in the collection. But by far the largest 
group of trade catalogues in the library comes from furniture makers. 
Some furniture catalogues are from manufacturers, such as the Leo Aus- 
trian company in Chicago, which made a variety of furniture forms, while 


Fig. 5 3 . Geo. Howe and Company, 
trade card, Lynn, Mass., ca. 1877. 
Card: H. 3 1/2", w. $¥4". 

This trade card was initially circulated by 
Spencer Optical Manufacturing Company of 
New York, a firm that claimed to be the 
"makers of the largest variety of spectacles 6c 
eye glasses in the world." The name of a local 
retail oudet, in this case Geo. Howe and 
Company, was then added to the front of the 
card. Manufacturers commonly provided 
retailers with cards that could be altered to 
include the names and addresses of local 

Others, such as Buffalo Upholstering, Walter Heywood Chair, and Wooton 
Desk Manufacturing companies specialized. 

Trade cards are yet another important resource for researchers. One 
of the thousands of trade cards at Winterthur is that of Benjamin Hadley 
of Birmingham, England, who made and sold silver-plated ware and glass 
products during the early decades of the nineteenth century. His trade 
card is pasted inside the front cover of his catalogue, which contains more 
than 150 plates illustrating the products he furnished to his customers 
(fig. 52). Most of the librar)''s trade cards and labels, however, date from 
the second half of the nineteenth century and are part of the Thelma Seeds 
Mendsen Collection. In addition to those in the Mendsen Collection, the 
hbrary has a representative selection of nineteenth-century trade cards. 
These include cards from Geo. Howe and Company, a jewelry and optical 
firm in Lynn, Massachusetts (fig. 53); Chas. Counselman and Company, 
a meat-packing concern in Chicago (fig. 54); and Willcox and Gibbs Sew- 
ing Machine Company in New York (fig. 55). Each depicts to twentieth- 
century observers one aspect of life a century and more ago and suggests 
different strategies of advertising: appeals through clever design, humor, 
and sentiment. 


Fig. 54. Chas. Counselman and Com- 
pany, Royal Ham trade cards, Chicago, 
ca. 1875-90. Cards (each): ^V^' by 

This firm of meat packers relied on levit>' to 
relay its message to customers. Contributing 
to the company's humorous campaign are 
trade cards depictmg a pig on a throne, 
another driving a cart to market, Indians, the 
Alabama Traveler, and two smartly dressed 



Fig. 55. Willco-X and Gibbs Sewing 
Machine Company, trade card. New 
York, 1876. Card: H. ^Vi", w. 9". 

This trade card, which was used at the Cen- 
tennial E.xhibition in Philadelphia in 1876, 
contrasts the domestic distress created in the 
household by an inferior sewing machme 
(top) and the domestic tranquility of the 
household that has a Willcox and Gibbs 

)(0tWii2 does to Vtby Spot likel 

It bcawihf World j!j(M<aGo-8. 
Q^t. Goil'^RoyALHAMS 

Glijcf Josep}\£ his tribe discussing 
% merils of the RoYAl HAMS. 

Cms OounsBuwaGo- 

^i M 

T jArkansasTravcUer on liiB 
weayway finds comfort In 

^JBls Ootf^^ 


Several earlier trade cards, however, deserve special mention. One 
attractively printed trade card from 1 800 concerns the activities of Trott 
and Bumstead, Boston merchants who operated an importing business. 
Their card announced that they had acquired and were selling "cheap, all 
kinds of European & India goods [and] looking glasses, in great variety." 
A 1771 billhead — a cousin of the trade card— engraved by Paul Revere 
reveals that Joshua Brackett, another Bostonian, charged a customer at 
Cromwell's Head for liquor and lodging his horse. A trade label for Phila- 
delphian Samuel Taylor, a book binder and stationer, indicates that during 
the 1770s, Taylor bound "all sorts of Books, in the Neatest Manner, Gilt 
or Plain, as now Practised in England &c." And in 1701, Thomas Tuttell 
of London told the public through a set of now very rare playing cards 
that he sold mathematical and measuring instruments. 

The library's collection of advertising literature augments the knowl- 
edge researchers gain in examining art and artifacts in the museum's un- 
surpassed collections. Indeed, the literature of advertising in its varied 
forms furnishes researchers with more pictures of documented artifacts 
than they might hope to see during years of visiting museums and histori- 
cal societies. 


Paul B. Hensley 


Fig. 56. "Lorigine des parfums." From 
[Simon] Barbe, Le parfumeur royal; on, 
L'art de parfitmer (Paris: Chez Augustin 
Simon Brunet, 1699), frontispiece. 
Page: H. 6V2", w. 3 'A". 

In this seventeenth-century illustration, raw 
materials for perfume making are extracted 
from plants and animals, while the ship on 
the horizon symbolizes trade with faraway 

The invention of printing during the fifteenth century had much to do 
with the development of technology. For the first time, information related 
to trades could be disseminated among the small literate segment of soci- 
ety. As literacy increased, the circle of knowledge grew correspondingly 

A survey of rare books in Winterthur Library reveals that early publi- 
cations on technology were general histories covering many trades. Typi- 
cal of such works is Thomas Powell's Hiinume Industry; or, A History of 
Most Manual Arts, which focuses on clocks and watches, artificial-motion 
machines, writing and printing, painting, spinning and weaving, glassmak- 
ing, and shipping and sailing. Coming at the end of the seventeenth cen- 
tury and portending the next century's trend toward works dealing with a 
single craft or process is Simon Barbe's Parfumeur royal, which contains a 
handsome frontispiece (fig. 56). 

French, Dutch, and English technological publications of the eigh- 
teenth century range from treatises on individual trades and disciplines, 
such as Venterus Mandey's Mellifidum Mensionis; or, The Marrow of 
Measuring, to dictionaries, encyclopedias, and instructional manuals on a 
host of experiments and procedures. The most famous is Denis Diderot's 
Encyclopedie, cherished for both its stunning essays and its exquisite en- 
gravings (fig. 57). An equally impressive but less well known series is 
Descriptions des arts et metiers, which appeared from the early 1760s 
through the late 1780s. Winterthur Library has acquired a nearly com- 
plete set of this important work. 

In the wake of the eighteenth century, science and technology formed 
a comfortable, symbiotic aUiance, with each feeding the other. No doubt 
the success of this alliance was fostered by the interest of both the gentry 
and the middle classes in improved technology. Although eighteenth- 
cenrur)' gentlemen disdained actual physical labor, they had no aversion 
to experimenting and tinkering with the help of such aids as the Gentle- 
man's Companion; or. Tradesman's Delight or J. Leadbeater's Gentleman 
and Tradesman's Compleate Assistant; or. The Whole Art of Measuring 
and Estimating, Made Easy. Meanwhile, middle-class tradesmen and man- 
ufacturers increasingly consulted works such as Nouveau dictionnaire 


universel des arts et des sciences and Valuable Secrets Concerning Arts 
and Trade. The interest in science and technology shared by these two 
groups is evident in such consumer produas as the fine carriages pictured 
in The Nobleman and Gentleman's Director and Assistant in the True 
Choice of Their Wheel-Carriages (fig. 58). 

While gentlemen, merchants, and manufacturers found both general 
and specific works on the crafts useful, governments during the eighteenth 
century also began to embrace technology. William Lewis's Commercium 
Philosophico-Technicum, for example, contains an acknowledgment to 
the king in which Lewis asserts that "the advancement of arts, trades, and 
manufactures, and the extension of commerce" are the "immediate ob- 
jects" of the king's concern since they embody the "most certain means of 


Fig. 57. "Agriculture, Labourage." 
From Denis Diderot, Reciieil de 
planches, sur les sciences, les arts 
liberaux, et les arts mechaniques, avec 
leur explication . . . , vol. i (Paris: Brias- 
son, David, Le Breton, Durand, 1762), 
pi. [i]. Page: H. i$Vi", w. 9V1". 

This engraving from Diderot reminds us that 
technology in early modem Europe often 
began on the land. The small letters and 
numbers superimposed on the engraving refer 
to detailed descriptions of tools used in 
eighteenth-century agriculture and husbandry. 

»./Jw ,-, h.;...^ 

- Jt/i i( u/tai X, Liibaiu luji 


Fig. 58. Carriage. From The Nobleman 
and Gentleman's Director and Assistant 
in the True Choice of Their Wheel- 
Carriages (London: Printed for A. 
Webley, 1763), pi. 8. Page: h. 7", w. 


The marriage between technology and con- 
sumerism IS evident in the carriage catalogue 
illustrated here. 

attaining your darling wishes, the rendering Your people powerful and 
happy, and perpetuating the blessings of peace" (p. [i]). Nowhere is gov- 
ernmental interest in technology more apparent, however, than in canal 
technology. A rapidly growing means of attaining commercial blessings, 
canals were the focus of Robert Fulton's 1796 Treatise on the Improve- 
ment of Canal Navigation, which provided exquisitely detailed illustra- 
tions and guidelines for canal construction and design. 

During the nineteenth century, new types of technological publica- 
tions arose. Manufacturer's catalogues, such as that of Crompton Loom 
Works of Worcester, Massachusetts, began appearing, often with stunning 
illustrations. Fittingly, the Crompton catalogue uses technologically ad- 
vanced chromolithography to advertise its sophisticated machinery (fig. 
59). Despite such innovations, older forms of technological writing con- 
tinued to be popular. Many American and foreign technological works of 
the nineteenth century focused on single trades or combined short textual 
descriptions of an array of trades with beautiful engravings. Sometimes 
such books were published for the benefit of children, both to educate 
them and perhaps to assist them in eventually choosing a craft vocation. 
Certainly among the handsomest of these works is a Dutch publication 
entitled Geheel Nieuw Groot en Vermakelizk Prentenboek voor Kinderen, 
in which each description of a trade is accompanied by a marvelous color 
illustration (pi. 14). 

In the early stages of their country's development, Americans measur- 
ing their technological sophistication sometimes compared themselves 
unfavorably with Europeans. Expressing some hesitancy about the ac- 
complishments of Americans in the preface to One Thousand Valuable 
Secrets in the Elegant and Useful Arts, a Philadelphia author in 1795 
wrote: "Although the useful and necessary arts and manufactures, which 


Fig. 59. "Narrow Crompton Loom." 
From Crompton Loom Works, Illus- 
trated Catalogue of Looms, and Parts 
of the Same (Worcester, Mass., 1868), 
pi. 5. Page: H. 11", w. 8". 

This color illustration of a Crompton loom 
handsomely documents the coming of mdus- 
trialization to the textile industry. 

have mostly hitherto employed the industrious citizens of America, have 
acquired a degree of perfection, which rivals the production of Europe, 
those, which are distinguished by elegance and refinement are but little 
known, or at best in their infancy" (p. [iii]). Attempting to remedy the 
situation, the author included in his thousand secrets tips on engraving, 
varnishing, glassmaking, gilding, dying, mold crafting, inkmaking, 
winemaking, confectionery making, spot and stain removal, and fishing. 

Improvements in American technology were promoted both by indi- 
viduals and by organizations devoted to this purpose. In its 1 8 1 7 address, 
Connecticut Society for the Encouragement of American Manufactures 
linked commerce, manufacturing, and agriculture as "the three great col- 
umns that support the dome of American prosperity" (p. zi). No longer 
the stepchild of science and philosophy, technology was increasingly 
applied to daily life. The words practical and useful appear constantly in 
the titles of nineteenth-century technological works. Technology was also 
promoted by the educational system, as is demonstrated by Marshall 
Perry's 1832 textbook. First Book of Fine and Useful Arts for the Use of 
Schools and Lyceums. After the Civil War, technology aided in improving 
health in the home. Carl Pfeiffer in his Sanitary Relations to Health Princi- 
ples in Architecture reminded readers that good heating, ventilation, and 
lighting were essential in the home since "the dwelling exercises a more 
decided influence upon our health than the clothes we wear" (p. [3]). 

Thus, having begun as the somewhat mysterious preserve of the rela- 
tively few, technology by the late nineteenth century had entered the pri- 
vacy of the home, giving it a dynamism and practicality it never before 


E. Richard McKinstry 


Travel narratives from the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries contain il- 
luminating descriptions of the world before the camera and ever-improving 
transportation systems made touring ordinary and somewhat predictable. 
Americans today can easily travel to Europe or our national parks by 
airplane or automobile. Consequently, modern travelers tend to write 
about their experiences less often and in less detail than their counterparts 
of a centur\' and more ago. The details that travelers in the past dutifully 
recorded in letters, diaries, and sketchbooks provide invaluable glimpses 
of past cultures to modern historians. Responses to spectacular events and 
natural wonders as well as observations about such routine matters as 
weather, dress, and accommodations indicate how earlier Americans 
viewed themselves and people from other lands. 

In addition to narratives of their journeys, some artist-travelers pro- 
duced extraordinary visual works depicting their travels. An unidentified 
traveler from Boston created eighty-one watercolors and pencil sketches 
in his travels up and down the Atlantic seaboard from Canada to Cuba 
(fig. 60), while Edwin Whitefield recorded informative text and sketched 

Fig. 60. Beh'idere. From Boston artist, 
manuscript diaries, vol. 2 (1857-64), 
pi. z. Watercolor; H. 6 'A", w. ^Va". 

Although the written observations of 
the artist who painted this scene are 
informative, the sketches he made dur- 
ing his travels between 1 85 1 and 1864 
offer a vision of nineteenth-century 
buildings and life-styles that might 
otherwise be lost. Pictured here is the 
Charleston, South Carolina, home of 
the Brewster family. 


the American countryside in his diary. Among the most striking volumes 
in the library, no doubt, is John Collins's Views of the City of Burlington, 
New Jersey. Remaining in the vicinity of his adopted Philadelphia, Collins 
sketched and painted views of the historically notable buildings of that 
town (pi. 15). 

Of the many forms of literature created by travel writers, manuscript 
travel accounts are among the most consistently reliable and refreshing. 
The library's earliest manuscript narrative of an excursion in the United 
States was written by an unnamed Philadelphian — probably a member of 
the Richardson family— who traveled from his hometown to Boston with 
a friend in 1791. The library's earliest narrative of an American's trip to a 
foreign land was written in 1796 and 1797 by Benjamin Johnson, a suc- 
cessful printer and Philadelphia Quaker, who was headed to France to try 
to mend a rift in the Society of Friends at Congenies. Johnson's account is 
atypical compared with others in the library since Johnson makes cerebral 
comments about the appearance of European cities, their inhabitants, and 
living conditions instead of merely describing the sights tourists normally 
went to see. 

Manuscript travel narratives were often inspired by their author's 
need to ensure his own or his firm's commercial success. Success for the 
Philadelphia printing firm Kimber and Richardson necessitated that a 
member of the company spend part of 1 8 1 3 traveling through Pennsylva- 
nia and Virginia plying books and magazines. As indicated by the "Sea 
Journal," the hope for success in another part of the world kept a super- 
cargo busy at sea and in the Orient in 1804. Apart from recording the 
conditions and occurrences of oceanic sailing, the supercargo's manuscript 
details trading conditions that Westerners had to contend with in Calcutta 
and Canton. Remarks about the hong merchants of Canton are particu- 
larly valuable in unraveling the complexities of East— West relations two 
centuries ago, while the recitation of the relative value of currencies pro- 
vides an index for comparing the riches of numerous countries. Of equal 
historical interest is the description of the unenviable situation of foreign 
traders in Manila. Informative travel accounts were also kept by seamen 
aboard merchant and military vessels. Francis Nichols's journal of his 
four-month voyage in 181 2/1 3 aboard United States frigate Chesapeake 
records numerous encounters with enemy British ships. The Chesapeake, 
which was subsequently captained by James Lawrence, was taken by the 
British only three months after Nichols's voyage ended, losing a battle to 
the Shannon thirty miles off Boston harbor. 

Some Americans in earlier ages traveled to satisfy their curiosity 
about natural wonders and foreign cultures. Naturalist John G. Bell was 
fortunate in combining his scientific and commercial interests on a 


Fig. 6i. "Memphis. Tennessee." From 
Henry Lewis, Das ilhistrirte Mississippi- 
thai . . . (Dusseldorf: Amz, [1857]), 
facing p. 354. Page: H. 8", w. n". 

Like many painters of American scenerv- bom 
in Europe, Henry Lewis was a native of Great 
Britain. He came to the United States with his 
father and brothers when he was ten years 
old. From 1846 to 1848, Lewis s!<etched 
while traveling up and down the Mississippi 
in order to prepare himself for the panorama 
he planned to pamt show'ing the river in all 
its glory. After exhibitmg his panorama in 
America, Lewis returned to Europe, married, 
and settled in Dusseldorf, Germany, where he 
published a volume of Mississippi scenes. 



Panamanian hunting expedition in 1849/50. Bell's faithfully kept diary 
indicates that he found many species on which to practice his profession 
of taxidermy. Not until the mid nineteenth century did grand tours of 
Europe become fashionable in some quarters. While the names of their 
keepers have not survived the years, two of the library's manuscript diaries 
contain detailed travel narratives written by young men sightseeing in 
western Europe in 1852 and 1853. Their remarkable recall of architec- 
tural, historical, and topographical minutiae, however, suggests that they 
may have spent more time reading and then copying from their guide- 
books than actually sightseeing. More informative about the experiences 
and attitudes of Americans touring Europe is the journal of Mary Patton, 
the wife of well-known nineteenth-century Presbyterian and Congrega- 
tional clergs'man William Patton, written during her combined grand tour 
and wedding trip in 1860/61. Another fascinating account of such tours 
is provided by Estelle M. Mendinhall, a society matron of Wilmington, 
Delaware, who traveled through both Europe and Egypt in 1905/6. 

Just as Americans traveled to view European treasures, many Euro- 
peans left their native lands to see for themselves the countr)- that had 
enticed their former countrymen to relocate and begin their lives anew in 
America. Artists, never to be left behind, numbered among them. Karl 
Bodmer (pi. 16), Henry Lewis (fig. 61), John Hill (fig. 62), Joshua Shaw, 
and Edward Beyer all gave nineteenth-century armchair travelers an op- 
portunity to visuahze America without having to leave home. 


Fig. 6z. John HiU, "Passaic Falls, New 
Jersey." From Joshua Shaw, Picturesque 

Views of American Scenery (Philadel- 
phia: M. Carey and Son, [ca. 1820]), 
n.p. Page: h. 14V1", w. 21". 

Both John Hill, the engraver of this plate, and 
Joshua Shaw, the author of the work in 
which It appears, immigrated to America 
after winning artistic recognition in their 
native England. This plate illustrates how 
Paterson, New Jersey, appeared before indus- 
trialization forever altered it in the late 
nineteenth century. According to Shaw, the 
Passaic River flowed through Paterson "with 
a gentle and almost imperceptible current 
over beds of limestone, through rich and 
graceful scenery, till within a short distance of 
a deep cleft in a rock which crosses the bed of 
the river" (facing pi.). 

While European travel appealed to Americans of means during the 
eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, excursions through the United States 
attracted other Americans. In 1839, for instance, Mrs. James Bogert re- 
cords that her family from New York City crossed their state to visit Niag- 
ara Falls, while the anonymous "Remeniscences of Our Trip to the Co- 
lumbian Exposition" documents the ten-day excursion of a Buffalo family. 
David Clapp, a printer, took his first trip by water from Boston to New 
York in 1 83 1 and wrote about it with youthful enthusiasm. Writing of a 
similar journey some ten years later, Clapp, now a seasoned traveler, 
makes matter-of-fact comments, his exuberance apparently abated by 
familiarity and repetition. 

Just as reports of explorations played a significant part in early Amer- 
ican settlement, so did printed books circulated in European countries to 
encourage immigration to America. Two by William Penn are of special 
historical significance: Some Account of the Province of Pennsilvania in 


America, printed in London in 1681, and A Letter from William Penn, 
Proprietary Governour of Pemtsylvania in America, which contains a 
description of the province of Pennsylvania and a map showing Philadel- 
phia bounded by the Delaware and Schuylkill rivers. 

As time passed and America's highway and railroad systems bur- 
geoned, citizens were given more opportunities to travel. Consequently, 
more books and articles were published in an effort to describe and ex- 
plain America to the general public, both here and abroad. Well-known 
writers, including Charles Dickens and James Fenimore Cooper, published 
works on their travels, as did relatively unknown observers Wilham 
Bingley, William Faux, and Richard Parkinson. 

Travel and exploration have been important elements of the Amer- 
ican experience ever since the New World was sighted by Christopher 
Columbus, himself a member of an exclusive group of early global explor- 
ers. Historians can only be thankful that so many people who journeyed 
from their homes placed pen and brush to paper to record the events and 
spectacles of their trips. 


Holdings Cited 

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Adam, Robert, and James Adam. The Works in Architecture of 
Robert and James Adam .... 2 vols. London: By the authors, 

1778, 1779- 

Aitken, John, ed. The Scots Musical Museum. Philadelphia: By the 
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Aladdm Company. Aladdin Homes: "Built in a Day. " Bay City, 
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Alberti, Leon Bartista. The Architecture of Leon Battista Alberti in 
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Alcott, William Andrus. The Young House-keeper; or. Thoughts on 
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Aldrich and McCormac. Illustrated price list. Troy, N.H., 188.'. 

Allair, C. D. Paper Doll's Furniture: How to Make It. New York: 
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Allen, John. Victoria Regia; or, The Great Water Lily of America. 
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2d impression. Oxford: 

Allestree, Richard. The Ladies' Calling . 
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Allgates, H. Gates Lloyd, Haverford, Pa. Photographs, ca. 1920. 

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American Sunday-School Union. City Sights for Country Eyes. Phila- 
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Andrews, Edward Deming. Religion in Wood: A Book of Shaker 
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, and Faith Andrews. Fruits of the Shaker Tree of Life: 

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The Archer's Guide. London: T. Hunt, 1833. 

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Arrowsmith, James. An Analysis of Drapery: or. The Upholsterer's 
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David Felt, Stationer's Hall, n.d. Charleston, S.C., area, 1835. 

Bailey, John. Illustrated billhead. New York, November 5, 1792. 

Bakewell, Pears, and Company. Receipts. Pittsburgh, Pa., 1866, 
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Baldwin, Jabez. Account book. Salem, Mass., 1809-19. 

Ball, Joseph. Pattern book. Longton, Staffordshire, Eng., ca. 

Barbe, [Simon]. Le parfumeur royal; ou, L'art de parfumer. Paris: 
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Barker, John. [Catalogue of Furniture Hardware: Handles, Escutch- 
eons, Hinges, Drawer Pulls, and Bells]. Birmingham, Eng.: Barker, 
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Barlow, Francis. A Booke Containing such Beasts as Are Most 
Usefull for such as Practice Drawing, Gravaeing, Amies Painting, 
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Barnard, Sir John. A Present for an Apprentice . . . with Rules for 
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Berquin, Arnaud. The Blossoms of Morality: Intended for the Amuse- 
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Beyer, Edward. Album of Virginia. Richmond, 1858. 

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Bingley, William. Travels in North America from Modern Writers 
with Remarks and Observations .... London: Harvey and 
Darton, 1821. 

Bishop, Rufus. "Words of a Shining Roll Sent from Holy Mother 
Wisdom to Brother Rufus Bishop, July loth, 1842." New Leba- 
non, N.Y. 

Blake, George E., pianoforte-maker. Advertising broadside. Philadel- 
phia, 18??. 

Blegny, Nicolas de. Le bon usage du the, du caffe et du chocolat pour 
la preservation et pour la guerison des maladies. Lyon: Thomas 
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Bogert, Mrs. James. Diary of a western tour. New York to Niagara 
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Book of Prices of the United Society of journeymen Cabinet Makers. 
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Boston artist. Manuscript diaries: excursions, fishing, and bird hunt- 
ing. 2 vols. Atlantic seaboard, Canada to Cuba, 1851-54, 

Boston Glass Manufactory. Billhead. Boston, 1824. 

Boulle, Andre-Charles. Nouveaux deisseins de meiibles et ouvrages 
de bronze et de marqueterie. Paris: Mariette, n.d. 

Brackett, Joshua. Billhead. Boston, 1771. 

Brathwaite, Richard. The English Gentlewoman. London; B. Alsop 
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British and Foreign School Society. Manual of the System of Teaching 
Reading, Writing, Arithmetic, and Needle-work, in the Elementary 
Schools of the British and Foreign School Society. London: Printed 
for the benefit of the society and sold by Longman, 1816. 

Brookshaw, George. Groups of Flowers, Drawn and Accurately 
Coloured after Nature ivith Full Directions for the Young Artist. 
2d ed. London: Thomas McLean, 18 19. 

Brown, Thomas. An Account of the People Called Shakers: Their 
Faith, Doctrines, and Practice . . . to Which Is Affixed a History of 
Their Rise and Progress to the Present Day. Troy, N.Y.: Parker 
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Brumbaugh, G. Edwin. Brumbaugh papers, 1912-83. 

Brunetti, Gaetano. Sixty Different Sorts of Ornaments. London, 

Buffalo Upholstering Company. Netv Goods for 1884. Buffalo, 
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Butler, Charles. The American Gentleman. Philadelphia: Hogan and 
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. The American Lady. Philadelphia: Hogan and Thompson, 


Buttre, William. Trade card. New York, ca. 1813. 

Calabrella, E. C. The Ladies' Science of Etiquette and Handbook of 
the Toilet by Countess de Calabrella. Philadelphia: T. B. Peterson, 

Carroll, George D. The Art of Dinner Giving and Usages of Polite 
Society. New York: Dempsey and Carroll, 1880. 

Carter, Charles. The Complete Practical Cook; or, A New System of 
the Whole Art and Mystery of Cookery. London: W. Meadows, 


[Caswall, Edward]. Sketches of Young Ladies and Young Gentlemen 
by Quiz. New York: Wiley and Putnam and G. Dearborn, 1838. 

[Catalogue Containing Watercolor Drawings of Japanese Porcelain]. 
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[Catalogue of Doorknobs, Escutcheons, Door Knockers, Furniture 
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[Catalogue of Watercolor Drawings Depicting French Wares]. Vols. 
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[Catalogue of Furniture Hardivare and Sconces]. [Birmingham, Eng.?, 
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[Catalogue of Toys]. Germany, 1818-39. 

Catlin, George. O-kee-pah: A Religious Ceremony and Other Cus- 
toms of the Mandans. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott [London 
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and Common Errors of Speech. New York: D. Appleton, 1891. 

Chambers, William. Designs of Chinese Buildings, Furniture, Dresses, 
Machines, and Utensils. London: [John Harris], 1757. 

Chapman, John Gadsby. Chapman's American Drawing Book. New 
York: J. S. Redfield, 1847. 


Chapman, Eunice (Hawley). An Account of the Conduct of the 
People Called Shakers m the Case of Eunice Chapman and Her 
Children since Her Husband Became Acquainted with That People 
and joined Their Society. Albany, N.Y.: Printed for the author, 

Chas. Counselman and Company. Royal Ham trade cards. Chicago, 
ca. 1875-90. 

Chesterfield, Lord. Principles of Politeness, and of Knowing the 
World, . . . with Additions by the Rev. Dr. John Trusler .... Phila- 
delphia: Mathew Carey, 1 800. 

Chippendale, Thomas. The Gentleman and Cabinet-Maker's Direc- 
tor. London: By the author, 1754. 

Chippendale's Ornaments and Interior Decorations in the Old 
French Style Consisting of Hall Glass and Picture Frames, Chim- 
ney-pieces, Stands for China .... London: John Weale, [183?]. 

Church, Frederic Edwin. Letters. Colombia and Ecuador, 1853. 

Cipriani, Giovanni Battista, and Francesco Bartoiozzi. Cipriani's 
Rudiments of Drawing Engraved by F. Bartoiozzi. London: G. 
Bartoiozzi, 1786. 

Clapp, David. Travel |ournals. Eastern seaboard states, 1831, 1841, 

Clinton, Louisa. Watercolors, interiors of Scottish country homes, 

Coiffures. Twelve watercolor drawings; three heads in ovals, France, 

A Collection of Figures and Conversations, Cattle, Birds, Beasts, and 
Landskips Neatly Engraved on Seventy-two Copper Plates: From 
Vemet, Boucher, Bergham, Barlow, Etc. London: Robert Saver, 


Collins, John. Views of the City of Burlington, Neu' Jersey, . . . Taken 
from Original Sketches. Burlington, 1847. 

Comenius, Johann Amos. Orbis Sensualium Pictiis. London: Printed 
by J. R. for Abel Swall, 1689; London: Printed for S. Leacroft, 


A Compleat Book of Ornaments Consisting of a Variety of Compart- 
ments, Shields, Masks, Prizework, Moreskwork, &c.. Being Very 
Useful for Painters, Carvers, Watch-makers, Gravers, &c.. In- 
vented and Drawn by Some of the Best Artists. London: Thomas 
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Connecticut Society for the Encouragement of American Manufac- 
tures. Address. Middletown, Conn.: Printed by T. Dunning, 18 17. 

Cooley, E. A Description of the Etiquette at Washington City . . . 
during the Session of Congress. Philadelphia: L. B. Clarke, 1829. 

Cooper, James Fenimore. Notions of the Americans Picked up by a 
Travelling Bachelor. Philadelphia: Carey and Hart, 1833. 

Cox, David. A Treatise on Landscape Painting and Effect in Water 
Colours. London: S. and J. Fuller, 18 14. 

. The Young Artist's Companion. London: S. and J. Fuller, 


Crapo, Henry H. Watercolors, William J. Rotch house. New Bedford, 
Mass., ca. 18S0. 

Crofton, John Saville. The London Upholsterer's Companion, Con- 
taining the Most Approved and Modern Methods for the Various 
Styles of Manufacturing, Including the Art of Spring Stuffing .... 
London: John Williams, 1834. 

Crompton Loom Works. Illustrated Catalogue of Looms, and Parts 
of the Same. Worcester, Mass., 1868. 

Crunden, John. Thejoyner and Cabinetmaker's Darling. London: 
A. Webley, 1770. 

Cuvillies, Fran(;ois de. "Morceaux de caprice a divers usages." In 
Oeuvres deu.xieme serie. Munich: Se Vend Chez L'auteur, 1745. 

The Dairy and the Poultry Yard. [London]: Joseph Myers, 1850-99. 

Davis, Alexander Jackson. Correspondence, drawings, and photo- 
graphs, William J. Rotch house. New Bedford, Mass., 1 848-1 867. 

Deblois, Lewis. Trade card. Boston, 1757. 

Descriptions des arts et metiers. Paris: Academic des Sciences, 

Desroche, Henri Charles. Les Shakers Americains: D'un neo- 

christianisme a un presocialisme. Paris: Editions de Minuit, 1955. 

[Dewing, Maria Richards (Oakey)]. Beauty in the Household. New 
York: Harper and Brothers, 1882. 

Diary of an American on tour. 1853. 

Diary of a young American in Europe. 1852/53. 

Dickens, Charles. American Notes for General Circulation. London: 
Chapman and Hall, 1842. 

Diderot, Denis. Recueil de planches, siir les sciences, les arts liberaux, 
et les arts mechaniqites, avec lew explication .... 8 vols. Paris: 
Briasson, David, Le Breton, Durand, 1762- 72. Supplement to 
Encyclopedie; ou, Dictionnaire raisonne des sciences, des arts, et 
des metiers, par line societe de gens de lettres. 18 vols. Paris: Brias- 
son, 1751-72. 

Dixon, William Hepworth. New America. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippin- 
cott, 1867. 

Dominy, FelLx. Account book. East Hampton, N.Y., 1818-27. 

Dommy, Nathaniel, FV, and Nathaniel Dommy V. Account book B. 
East Hampton, N.Y., 1762— 1844. 

Dominy, Nathaniel, V. Account book and daybook. East Hampton, 
N.Y., 1798-1847. 


Ducerceau, Paul Androuet. Ornement servant anx brodeur ouvrier 
en sole et orfevre et autre. Paris, [ca. 1660-1710]. 

Dummer, George. Account book. Jersey City Glass Works, Jersey 
City, N.J., 1 847-48- 

Eastman, Seth. Treatise on Topographical Drawing. New York: 
Wiley and Putnam, 1837. 

The Edward Denting Andrews Memorial Shaker Collection. Comp. 
E. Richard McKinstry. New York and London: Garland Publish- 
ing, 1987. 

Edwards, George, and Matthias Darly. A New Book of Chinese 
Designs. London: By the authors, 1754. 

Endicott, George. Inventory. New York, 1848. 

Evans, Frederick William. Autobiography of a Shaker and Revelation 
of the Apocalypse. Albany, N.Y.: Charles Van Benthuysen and 
Sons, 1869. 

. Shakers: Compendium of the Origin, History, Principles, 

Rules and Regulations, Government, and Doctrines of the United 
Society of Believers in Christ's Second Appearing .... New York: 
D. Appleton, 1859. 

. Tests of Divine Inspiration; or, The Rudimental Principles by 

Which True and False Revelation, in All Eras of the World, Can 
Be Unerringly Discriminated. New Lebanon, N.Y.: Shakers, 1853. 

Fanny Gray. Boston: Crosby, Nichols, 1854. 

Faux, William. Memorable Days in America: Being a Journal of a 
Tour to the United States Prtncipally Undertaken to Ascertam by 
Positive Evidence the Condition and Probable Prospects of British 
Emigrants .... London: W. Simpkin and R. Marshall, 1823. 

Fellow, R. The Game of Croquet. New York: Hurd and Houghton; 
Boston: E. P. Dutton, 1865. 

Fenton, Christopher. Daybook. Bennington, Vt., 1847-59. 

Fletcher, Thomas. Letter book. Philadelphia, 1852-59. 

Forepaugh, Adam. Catalogue of Living Wonders: Rare Animals and 
Birds to Be Seen at Adam Forepaugh's Great Zoological and 
Ornithological Menagerie and Museum .... Bui¥alo, N.Y.: Printed 
by Warren, Johnson, 1 8 7 1 . 

Formal Garden, Winterthur. Autochromes, 19 10-16. 

The Forty Thieves: A Drama. London: Benjamin Pollock, 1850-58. 

Fowler, Orson Squire. A House for All; or, A New, Cheap, Conve- 
nient, and Superior Mode of Building. New York: Fowlers and 
Wells, 1848. 

Freart de Chambray, Roland. A Parallel of the Antient Architecture 
with the Modern, in a Collection of Ten Principal Authors Who 
Have Written upon the Five Orders. Trans. John Evelyn. London: 
Printed by Theodor Roycroft for John Place, 1664. 

Frederick, Christine (McGaffey). Household Engineering: Scientific 
Management in the Home, . . . a Correspondence Course on the 
Application of the Principles of Efficiency Engineering and Scien- 
tific Management to the Every Day Tasks of Housekeeping. 
Chicago: American School of Home Economics, 1923. 

Frezier, Amedee Francois. Traite des jeux d'artifice. Pans: Nyon, 

Frickinger, Johann Michael. Niitzliches in lauter auserlesenen, wohl- 
approbirt- und meistentheils Neu-inventirten Mustern bestehendes, 
Weber-Bild-Buch .... Neustadt and Leipzig: Jacob Samuel Fried- 
rich Riedel, 1783. 

Fulper Brothers. Pictorial price list. Flemington, N.J., 188?. 

Fulton, Robert. A Treatise on the Improvement of Canal Navigation; 
Exhibiting the Numerous Advantages to Be Derived from Small 
Canals. London: L and J. Taylor, 1796. 

Galli da Bibiena, Ferdinando. Direzioni a'Giovani Studenti nel di- 
segno dell'architettura civile .... 2 vols. Bologna: Nella Stamperia 
de Lelio dalla Volpe, 1777-83. 

Galloway Terra-Cotta Company. Galloivay Pottery for Garden and 
Interior. Philadelphia, [ca. 1905]. 

[Gardiners Island Glass Catalogue]. 2 vols. Gardiners Island, N.Y., 
[ca. 1805]. Owned by Johannes Schiefner of Bohemia. 

Garrett, Theodore Francis. The Encyclopaedia of Practical Cookery: 
A Complete Dictionary of All Pertaining to the Art of Cookery 
and Table Service. 8 vols. Philadelphia: Hudson Importing Co.; 
[London: A. Bradley], [1898?]. 

Gates, Benjamin. "A Day Book or Journal of Work and Various 
Things Kept by Benjamin Gates, beginnmg October ist 1827." 
New Lebanon, N.Y., 1827/28. 

Gauger, Nicolas. Fires hnprov'd; Being a New Method of Building 
Chimneys, so as to Prevent Their Smoaking .... London: F. Senex 
and E. Curll, 171 5. 

. La mecanique du feu .... Paris: Jacques Estienne and Jean 

Jombert, 171 3. 

Geheel Nieuw Groot en Vermakelizk Prentenboek voor Kinderen. 
Zalt-Bommel, Netherlands: Johannes Noman, 1826. 

The Gentleman's Companion; or. Tradesman's Delight. London: 
Printed for J. Stone, 1735. 

Geo. Howe and Company. Trade card. Lynn, Mass., ca. 1877. 

Gilbert, Ann Taylor. City Scenes; or, A Peep into London. London: 
Harvey and Darton, 1828. 

Gilpin, Thomas. Inventory. Philadelphia, 1839-41. 

[Gourdoux-Doux, J. H.] Elements and Principles of the Art of 
Dancing, as Used in Polite and Fashionable Circles. Philadelphia: 
J. F. Hurtel, 18 17. 


[Gracian y Morales, Baltazar]. The Courtiers Manual Oracle; or, 
The Art of Prudence. London: M. Flesher for A. Swalle, 1685. 

Graff, Frederick. Drawings in pen, pencil, and watercolor, Philadel- 
phia, 1798-1806. 

Gregory, John. A Father's Legacy to His Daughters. Chambersburg, 
Pa.: Dover and Harper for Mathew Carey, 1796. 

Griffiths and Browett. [Catalogue]. Birmingham, Eng., [ca. i860]. 

Grohmann, Johann Gottfried. Recueil J'idees tiouvelles pour la deco- 
ration des jardins et pares. Paris: Fuchs, 1796. 

Guillim, John. A Display of Heraldry. London: Printed by S. Roy- 
croft for R. Blome, 17Z4. 

Guilmard, Desire. Le garde-meuble, ancien et moderne. Paris: 
D. Guilmard and Bordeaux, [18??]. 

Hadley, Benjamin. [Catalogue]. Birmingham, Eng., [ca. 1815]. 

Hale, Sarah Josepha, ed. Godey's Magazine. New York: Godey Co. 
Vols. 14-95 (January 1837— December 1877). Library holdings 
(title and editors vary): Vols. 1-137 (July 1830 -August 1898). 

[Hall, Florence Marion (Howe)]. The Correct Thing in Good Society. 
Boston: Estes and Lauriat, 1888. 

Handloom weaver. Draft design book. Probably France, nineteenth 

Harris, Kate S., comp. Textile sample books. Salem Co., N.J., 1882. 

Hassell, John. Aqua Pictura. id ed. London: Hassell, 18 18. 

Haven, Alice Bradley. "All's Not Gold That Glitters"; or. The Young 
Californian. New York: D. Appleton, 1865. 

Hazard, Mar\'. "A Collection of Songs of Various Kinds Written and 
Pricked for the Purpose of Retaining Them, by Mary Hazard; 
beginningjune i6th, 18 ^9." New Lebanon, N.Y. 

Hearn, Lafcadio. La cuisine Creole . . . . zded. New Orleans: 
F. F. Hansell and Brother, [1885]. 

Henshaw, auctioneer. A Catalogue of the Neat and Elegant House- 
hold Furniture, Prints, Books, etc. Belonging to Sir George 
Cheywynd, Bart., of Brocton Hall . . . which Will Be Sold at Auc- 
tion . . . , i8o;i. Stafford, 1802. 

Hill, John. Aquatint engravings for The Hudson River Port Folio. 
New York: Henry T. Megarey, [1828]. 

Hinds, William Alfred. American Communities: Brief Sketches of 
Economy, Zoar, Bethel, Aurora, Amana, Icaria, the Shakers, 
Oneida, Wallingford, and the Brotherhood of the New Life. 
Oneida, N.Y.: Office of the American Socialist, 1878. 

Hints to Men about Town; or, Waterfordiana . . . by a Sporting 
Surgeon. London: H. Smith, [ca. 1830]. 

The History of Little Fanny, Exemplified in a Series of Figures .... 
2d ed. Philadelphia: Morgan and Yeager, 1825. 

The History of Little Goody Twoshoes. Wilmington, Del.: Printed 
by Peter Brynberg, 1796. 

Holt, Ardem. Fancy Dresses Described; or. What to Wear at Fancy 
Balls. London: Dekenham and Freebody, 1887. 

Howells, William Dean. Three Villages. Boston: James R. Osgood, 

Hullmandel, Charles Joseph. The Art of Drawing on Stone. London: 
Longman, Rees, 1835. 

Huthwaite, Hannah. Cookery book. England, ca. 171 2. 

Ideas for Rustic Furniture. London: I. and J. Taylor, [178?]. 

Illustrated Pattern Book of English China and Earthenware; French 
China-ware, Plain and Ornamental; English and Foreign Flint 
Glass, Plain, Cut, and Engraved; Coloured and Decorated Glass; 
also of Chinese and Japanese China Ware, Parian and Terra-cotta 
Goods, Window and Plate Glass, Plain and Silvered, Mirrors, 
Looking Glasses, Mechanical Pieces, Flowers and Birds under 
Glass Shades, Pictures and Picture Frames, Stained Glass Windows 
and Panels; Table Ornaments, &c.. Lamps, Globes, Chimneys, 
d^c. N.p., [ca. 1880]. 

Imbert, Anthony. Shakers near Lebanon, State of New-York, [ca. 
1830s]. Watercolor; H. i8'/2", w. 22". 

Inquire Within for Anything You Want to Knoiv . . . Particularly 
Intended as a Book for ... All Subjects Connected with Domestic 
Economy .... New York: Garrett, Dick, and Fitzgerald, 1857. 

Introduction to Drawing Ships. London: Robert Sayer, 1788. 

J. G. and J. F. Low [Company]. Illustrated Catalogue of Art Tiles. 
Chelsea, Mass., 1884. 

J. L. Mott Iron Works. Illustrated Catalogue "Q " and Price List: 
Vanes, Bannerets, Finials, &c. New York and Chicago, 1892. 

James W. Tufts [Company]. Descriptive Catalogue of James W. 
Tufts' Arctic Soda-water Apparatus. Boston, 1876. 

Jee, Eginton, and Company. [Catalogue]. Birmimgham, Eng., [ca. 

Johnson, Benjamin. Travel diary in Europe. 1796/97. 

Johnson, Madame. Madame Johnson's Present; or. The Best Instruc- 
tions for Young Women . . . with a Summary of the Late Marriage 
Act. London: M. Cooper and C. Sympson, 1754. 

Johnson, Thomas. One Hundred and Fifty Netu Designs. London: 
Robert Sayer, 1758. 

Joseph Holmes Iron Works. Account books. Kmgston, Mass., 1728- 
34, 1759-75- 

Journal des Luxus iind der Moden. Weimar. Vols. 1-42 (1786- 
1827). Library holdings: vols. 1-17 (i 786-1 802). 

The Journeymen Cabinet and Chairmakers' New-York Book of 
Prices. New York: T. and J. Swords, 1796. 


Kelley, Lilla Elizabeth. Three Hundred Things a Bright Girl Can Do. 
Boston: Page, 1903. 

[Kenrick, William]. The Whole Duty of a Woman by a Lady. Exeter, 
N.H.: Stearns and Winslow, 1794. 

Kilburn and Dodd. A New Book of Sprigs of Flowers for the Use of 
Ladies, Tambour Workers, Etc. London: Roben Sayer and 
J. Bennet, 1776. 

Kimball, W. G. C. Photographic Vieivs, Shaker Village, Canterbury, 
New Hampshire. Concord, N.H.: Kimball, [ca. 1880]. 

Kimber and Richardson. "[Journal of a Printer's Trip through Penn- 
sylvania and West Virginia]." Philadelphia, 18 13. 

King, Nicholas. A Plan, and Perspective View of a House and Other 
Buildings, Belonging to Mr. Edwd. Langley, on Square No. 6; i in 
the City of Washington. Washington, D.C., 1798. 

Die Kleine Fanny. Leipzig: Karl Tauchnitz, [ca. 1 8 1 5]. 

Knight, Frederick. Knight's Gems or Device Book. 2d ed. London: 
J. Williams, [183?]. 

. Knight's Neic Book of Seven Hundred and Fifty-eight Plain, 

Ornamented, and Reversed Cyphers. Engraved by Nathaniel Gill 
and J. H. Whiteman. London, 1831. 

. Knight's Scroll Ornaments, Designed for the Use of Silver- 

smiths, Chasers, Die-sinkers, Modellers, &c., &c. [London]: 
T. Griffiths, [1825-30]. 

. Knight's Unique Fancy Ornaments. 5 parts, 4 [ornament 

designs] each or bound complete. London: J. Williams, 1834. 
. Knight's Vases and Ornaments, Designed for the Use of 

Architects, Silversmiths, Jeivellers, Modellers, Chasers, Die Sinkers, 
Founders, Carvers, and All Ornamental Manufacturers. London: 
J. Williams, 1833. 

Krimmel, John Lewis. Sketchbooks. 7 vols., 1810-zi. 

The Lady's Companion: Containing Upwards of Three Thousand 
Different Receipts in Every Kind of Cookery . . . Being Four Times 
the Quantity of Any Book of This Sort . . . . 2. vols. 5th ed. Lon- 
don: Printed for T. Read and R. Baldwin, 175 1. 

La Farge, John. Sketchbook. New York, 1862-64. 

La Mesangere, Pierre de. Collection des meubles et objets de goiit .... 
Paris: Pierre de La Mesangere, Au Bureau de Journal des Dames, 

Laporte, John. The Progress of a Water-coloured Drawing. London: 
By the author, 1 8 1 2. 

Laurence, John. The Clergy-Man's Recreation: Shewing the Pleasure 
and Profit of the Art of Gardening. London: Printed for Bernard 
Lintott, 1 7 17. 

Leadbeater, J. The Gentleman and Tradesman's Compleate Assistant; 
or, The Whole Art of Measuring and Estimating, Made Easy. 
London: Printed for A. Webley, 1770. 

Leaf and Flower Pictures and Hoiu to Make Them. New York: 
Anson D. F. Randolph, i860. 

Le Brun, Charles. A Method to Learn to Design the Passions .... 
Trans. John WilUams. London: By the translator, 1734. 

Le Notre, Andre. [Garden Designs]. Paris: N. Langlois, [168?]. 

Leo Austrian and Company. Illustrated Catalogue. Chicago, [ca. 1905] 

Le Pautre, Jean. [Ornament Suites]. Paris: P. Mariette, [ca. 1660]. 

Lewis, Henry. Das illustrirte Mississippithal, dargestellt in 80 nach 
der Natur aufgenommenen ansichten vom Wasserfalle zu St. 
Anthony an bis zum Golf von Mexico. Dusseldorf: Arnz, [1857]. 

Lewis, William. Commercium Philosophico-Technicum; or. The 
Philosophical Commerce of Arts: Designed as an Attempt to Im- 
prove Arts, Trades, and Manufactures. London: Printed for 
H. Baldwin, 1763. 

Library Committee of the R[ight] W[orshipful] Grand Lodge of 
Pennsylvania, Free and Accepted Masons. Dedication Memorial of 
the New Masonic Temple, Philadelphia .... Philadelphia: Clax- 
ton, Remsen, and Haffelfinger for the Library Committee, 1875. 

Lincoln, D. A. [Mary Johnson Bailey Johnson[. Mrs. Lincoln's Boston 
Cook Book: What to Do and What not to Do in Cooking. 1883. 
Reprint. Boston: Roberts Brothers, 1888. 

Lincoln, F. S. Photograph album. Bertha King Benkard house. Oyster 
Bay, Long Island, N.Y., 1945. 

L'interieur de la poupee. France, 1 900-1 909. 

Little Helen; or, A Day in the Life of a Naughty Girl. New Haven: 
S. Babcock, 1825. 

A Little Pretty Pocket-Book, Intended for the Instruction and Amuse- 
ment of Little Master Tommy and Pretty Miss Polly. Worcester, 
Mass.: Isaiah Thomas, 1787. 

Lock, Matthias. Principles of Ornament; or. The Youth's Guide to 
Drawing of Foliage. London: Robert Sayer, [174?]. 

Loir, Alexis. [Suite of Ornament Etchings], Paris: N. Langlois, [ca. 

Loudon, John C. The Suburban Horticultiiralist; or. An Attempt to 
Teach the Science and Practice of the Culture and Management of 
the Kitchen, Fruit, and Forcing Garden. London: William Smith, 

Love, Silverside, Darby, and Company. [Catalogue]. Sheffield, Eng., 
[ca. 1785]. 

Magazin fiir Freunde des guten Geschmacks. Leipzig: Friedrich 
August Leo, i794-[i8oo]. Library holdings: nos. i, 2 (1794); 
nos. 3, 4 (1795); vol. I (1795); vol. 2, nos. i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7 (1796); 
vol. 3, nos. 4, 5, 7, 8 (1797); vol. 4, nos. 1—8 (1798). 

Magazzino di mobilia o sieno modelli di mobili di ogni genere. 

Florence: Societa Calcografica, 1797-] 98]. Library holdings: no. i 
(October 1796); no. 2 (March 1797). 


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Robert Wemyss Symonds Collection. Photographs and documents, 
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Winterthur Cottage. Photograph album, date unknown. 


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Wooton Desk Manufacturing Company. Cdto/ogJ/e o/^^/;e Woo?OK ' s-'l ■ ^y J- 

Patent Cabinet Office Secretaries and Rotary Desks. Indianapolis, Youngs, Benjamin Seth. Diary. New Lebanon, N.Y., to the Midwest, 
1883. 1805. 


Notes on Contributors 


Katharine Martinez is Director, Library Division, and Librarian, Waldron 
Phoenix Belknap, Jr., Research Library of American Painting. 

Bert R. Denker is Librarian in Charge, Visual Resources Collection. 

Paul B. Hensley is Archivist, Winterthur Archives. 

E. Richard McKinstry is Librarian in Charge, Joseph Downs Collection 
of Manuscripts and Printed Ephemera. 

Neville Thompson is Librarian in Charge, Printed Book and Periodical 

American Cornucopia 

Treasures of the Winterthur Librar)' 

was typeset, printed, and bound in an edition of rwo thousand by 

Meriden-Stinehour Press. The text t\'pe is Sabon, a typeface designed 

by Jan Tschichold, and set on a Linotronic-300. The text paper is 

Mohawk Superfine, and the endleaves are Rainbow Texture. 

Two hundred handcrafted sUpcases were made by 

Judi Conant of Guildhall, Vermont. 

Photography by Wayne B. Gibson. 

Production and copy editing by Patricia A. Rice Lisk. 

Editorial consulting by Jeanne M. Malloy. 

Design by Christopher Kuntze. 


WInterthur Ubrvrv 

Z733 W78 

American cornucopia : treasures of the W